Drept civil

Principiile dreptului civil

În orice ramură de drept operează, pe de o parte, principiile întregului sistem de drept şi, pe de altă parte, principiile ramurei respective. În ceea ce priveşte dreptul civil, principiile sale sunt acele idei călăuzitoare care însoţesc întreaga legislaţie civilă.

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Managementul lanţului de aprovizionare-livrare

Obiective: după studierea acestei teme veţi fi în măsură să: definiţi managementului logistic, conceptul de lanţ de aprovizionare - livrare; caracterizaţi factorii de influenţă asupra lanţului de aprovizionare - livrare; cunoaşteţi tendinţele viitoare în domeniul lanţului de aprovizionare - livrare şi managementul bazei de furnizori.

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Noţiunea de stat

Definiţia statului

În mod tradiţional, statul este definit prin referire la trei elemente esenţiale: populaţia, teritoriul şi puterea publică (suveranitatea).

Populaţia în raport cu care statul îşi exercita puterea suverană este o grupare de indivizi reuniţi prin legături de cetăţenie şi prin stabilire adomiciliului pe teritoriul statului.

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Definitia si sistemul dreptului

Semnificaţiile noţiunii de drept

Ca membru al unei colectivităţi, omul a simţit nevoia de a crea, la început în formă embrionară şi apoi din ce în ce mai evoluată, reguli, norme care să îi cârmuiască existenţa, astfel încât interacţiunea cu ceilalţi oameni să îl prejudicieze cât mai puţin (să îi provoace cât mai puţine neajunsuri). Astfel, acţiunile sale au încetat a mai fi cu desăvârşire libere, ci au început să fie restricţionate de diferite reguli, menite să facă posibilă coexistenţa în cadrul unei colectivităţi.

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Ciroza hepatică

Ciroza hepatică reprezintă stadiul final al hepatopatiilor cronice, caracterizat prin fibroză extensivă şi prin remanierea arhitectonicii hepatice, asociate cu necroze hepatocitare şi cu apariţia nodulilor de regenerare. Numele de ciroză a fost dat de Laennec, după cuvântul grecesc kirrhos (culoarea galben-maro roşcat pe care o are ficatul cirotic).

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Ulcerul gastric şI duodenal

Ulcerul gastric (UG) şi ulcerul duodenal (UD) reprezintă întreruperi circumscrise, unice sau multiple ale continuităţii peretelui gastric sau duodenal, însoţite de o reacţie fibroasă, începând de la mucoasă şi putând penetra până la seroasă.

Ulcerul gastro-duodenal reprezenta pâna nu de mult o boală cu evoluţie cronică şi ciclică, în care factorul peptic era incriminat. În această patologie, ultimii ani au schimbat foarte mult conceptele, transformând ulcerul dintr-o boală în care secreţia acidă era cvasiobligatorie (“No acid, no ulcer”), într-o boală cauzată de un agent infecţios (Helicobacter Pylori). În literatura de specialitate afecţiunea mai este denumită ulcer peptic sau boală ulceroasă.

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Obiectul de studiu al anatomiei şI metodele de explorare

Anatomia este ştiinţa ce studiază forma şi structura organismului uman în filo- şi ontogeneză şi modificările condiţionate de interacţiunea cu mediul extern, cu mediul de trai, ţinând cont de vârstă, sex şi particularităţile individuale ale organismului.

Anatomia, ca ramură a biologiei, este ştiinţa despre substratul material al vieţii şi sănătăţii. Obiectul de cercetare al anatomiei este organismul omului viu.

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Sistemul muscular

Muşchii sunt organe contractile care prin scurtare produc mişcare. Amplitudinea mişcării este în funcţie de gradul de mobilitate al articulaţiei asupra căreia acţionează muşchiul şi de lungimea fibrei musculare.

În contracţia maximă, fibra se scurtează la jumătatea lungimii pe care o are în stare de relaxare maximă. Travaliul depus de un muşchi este în raport cu numărul fibrelor ce-l alcătuiesc; cu cât numărul acestor fibre este mai mare cu atât forţa lui creşte.

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Introducere în endocrinologie

Endocrinologia (de la gr. endon - înăuntru, krinein - a elimina şilogos - ştiinţă) este ştiinţa ce studiază structura şi funcţiile sistemului endocrin, biosinteza, acţiunile şi metabolismul hormonilor, statusul lor fiziologic şi patologic. Termenul de hormon ( de la gr. hormauo - a pune în mişcare, a stimula) a fost intodus de Bayllis şi Starling în 1905.

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Fluxurile pentru lucrul cu fisiere

Fluxurile pentru lucrul cu fisiere sunt cele mai usor de înteles. Clasele care implementeaza aceste fluxuri sunt urmatoarele:

  • FileReader, FileWriter - caractere
  • FileInputStream, FileOutputStream – octeti
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Cercetarea de marketing internaţional

Odată cu creşterea complexităţii problemelor cu care este confruntată piaţa internaţională, cercetarea de marketing devine vitală pentru întreprinzători.

Definirea şi particularităţile cercetării de marketing internaţional

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Definiţia şi obiectul dreptului civil

Dreptul civil este acea ramură de drept privat care reglementează raporturile juridice patrimoniale şi nepatrimoniale dintre subiecte de drept - persoane fizice şi juridice - aflate pe poziţii de egalitate juridică. Analiza definiţiei date conduce la următoarele concluzii descrise mai jos.

Dreptul civil aparţine diviziunii dreptului privat, deoarece reglementează, în principiu, raporturi dintre particulari. Mai mult decât atât, el nu constituie doar una dintre ramurile acestei diviziuni a dreptului, ci are un statut privilegiat: dreptul civil este drept comun pentru celelalte ramuri de drept privat. Aceasta înseamnă că ori de câte ori o anumită situaţie juridică nu este reglementată în nici un fel în ramura specială de drept, soluţia va fi aplicarea normelor de drept civil.

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Reacţia vitală

Prin reacţia vitala se înţelege totalitatea modificărilor locale ale ţesuturilor, organelor, si/sau generale ale întregului corp ce apar in organismul viu ca răspuns la acţiunea unui agent traumatic, mecanic, fizic, chimic, biologic.

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Filosofia social - istorică marxistă

Filosofia marxistă pune în centrul vieţii sociale activitatea economică. Astfel, diferenţa între diversele societăţi şi tipuri de societăţi e dată de diferitele moduri în care oamenii produc bunurile, iar evoluţia societăţii este determinată de schimbările în modul de producţie.

Modul de producţie este analizat prin două componente: forţele de producţie şi relaţiile de producţie. Forţele de producţie săvârşesc actul productiv şi se compun din forţa de muncă şi din mijloacele de producţie. Relaţiile de producţie reprezintă relaţiile ce se stabilesc în procesul de producţie.

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Înlocuitorii de zahar

Multi considera ca înlocuitorii de zahar constituie o alternativa buna, care sa se foloseasca pentru orice, începand cu bauturile si terminand cu prajiturile si bomboanele, deoarece nu contin calorii, deci nu îngrasa. Lumea consuma aceste articole, crezand ca sunt eficace, deoarece sunt sarace în calorii. Studii recente arata contrariul. Persoanele care consuma cel mai mult asa-zisele bauturi dietetice au cele mai multe probleme cu greutatea.

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Java Exceptii

Pentru tratarea erorilor remediabile Java foloseste Exceptiile.

Exemple de Exceptii pot fi :

  • ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
  • EOFException
  • FileNotFoundException
  • InterruptedException, etc
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Transmiterea argumentelor

O aplicate Java poate primi oricate argumente de la linia de comanda in momentul lansarii ei. Aceste argumente sunt utile pentru a permite utilizatorului sa specifice diverse optiuni legate de functonarea aplicatiei sau sa furnizeze anumite date initale programului.

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Clasa File

Clasa File nu se refera doar la un fisier ci poate reprezenta fie un fisier anume, fie multimea fisierelor dintr-un director. O instanta a acestei clase poate sa reprezinte asadar:un fisier sau un director. Specificarea unui fisier/director se face prin introducerea caii absolute spre acel fisier sau a caii relative fata de directorul curent. Acestea trebuie sa respecte conventiile de specificare a cailor si numelor fisierelor de pe masina gazda.

Utilitate clasei File consta în furnizarea unei modalitati de a abstractiza dependentele cailor si numelor fisierelor fata de masina gazda precun si punerea la dispozitie a unor metode pentru lucrul cu fisere si directoare la nivelul sistemului de operare.

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Variabile

Declaratii de variabile

O variabila în limbajul Java este o locatie de memorie care poate pastra o valoare de un anumit tip. În ciuda denumirii, exista variabile care îşi pot modifica valoarea şi variabile care nu şi-o pot modifica, numite în Java variabile finale. Orice variabila trebuie sa fie declarata pentru a putea fi folosita. Aceasta declaratie trebuie sa contina un tip de valori care pot fi memorate în locatia rezervata variabilei şi un nume pentru variabila declarata. În functie de locul în sursa programului în care a fost declarata variabila, aceasta primeşte o clasa de memorare locala sau statica. Aceasta clasa de memorare defineşte intervalul de existenta al variabilei în timpul executiei.

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Clasele DataInputStream si DataOutputStream

Aceste clase ofera metode prin care un flux nu mai este vazut ca o însiruire de octeti, ci ca o sursa de date primitive. Prin urmare vor furniza metode pentru citirea si scrierea datelor la nivel de tip de data si nu la nivel de octet. Constructorii si metodele cele mai importante sunt urmatoarele:

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Geoeconomics

The legacy of the discipline of geopolitics

The disciplines of geoeconomic and geopolitics are closely intertwined. The discipline of geopolitics has a burden full past and can only progress through self-critique: that is through criticism of the discipline itself. For instance, it must be made clear what in geopolitics is objective and what is normative. So far this criticism has come mostly from outside, from its opponents, whether they represent critical geopolitics, political geography, or mainstream political science.

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Information Processing

Accounts, Debits, and Credits

The previous chapter showed how transactions caused financial statement amounts to change. “Before” and “after” examples, etc. was used to develop the illustrations. Imagine if a real business tried to keep up with its affairs this way! Perhaps a giant chalk board could be set up in the accounting department.

As transactions occurred, they would be called in to the department and the chalk board would be updated. Chaos would quickly rule. Even if the business could manage to figure out what its financial statements were supposed to contain, it probably could not systematically describe the transactions that produced those results. Obviously, a system is needed.

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Introduction to Marketing Mix

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the activities that comprise a firm’s marketing program. These activities are popularly referred to as the 4 Ps – product, price, place and promotion. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Understand the major product decisions in marketing planning
  • Know the pricing objectives and the factors that influence the pricing decisions
  • Appreciate the role of marketing channels and understand the important channel decisions to be taken
  • Comprehend the Promotion Mix of marketing and the different elements in the promotion mix
  • Learn how the 4 Ps combine to create effective marketing programs
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Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the activities, viz., segmentation, targeting and positioning, that are collectively referred to as marketing strategy. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Segment the markets based on several segmentation variables
  • Target a segment by identifying the fit between segment profitability and organizational capability
  • Position your product/service so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the target customers’ minds
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Buyer behaviour

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the process through which the ultimate buyer makes purchase decisions. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify what stimulates a consumer to consider buying
  • Describe the buyer’s decision making process and the several factors which influence this decision
  • Understand the response of the buyer to the marketing and other stimuli
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Internal Marketing versus External Marketing

Abstract: International marketing orientation requires modern concepts of economic activities in accordance with the requirements and specific foreign markets (national, multinational, global) in order to meet their current and future needs with maximum efficiency. The need for knowledge of international marketing occurs when we have to realize, to sell and promote goods and services to consumers and users in other countries.

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Marketing Environment

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the forces that define marketing’s external environment. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify, analyze and monitor external forces and assess their potential impacts on the firm’s goods and services
  • Understand how marketers formulate their strategy within the frame of reference provided by the forces in the external environment

In this lesson, we will discuss the following:

Marketing Process

Objectives of Marketing Process

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the activities that makeup the marketing process. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify the parts of the marketing process
  • Understand the relationships among the parts of the marketing process
  • Explain how the marketing process creates, captures and sustains value for the customer
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Marketing Concepts

Objectives of marketing concepts

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the conceptual ideas that makeup the marketing function of a business. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • List out the concepts of marketing
  • Understand how these concepts are interconnected
  • Explain how marketing is changing in a connected world
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Introduction to Marketing

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the business function of marketing. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Define marketing and the utility (value) it creates for the customer
  • Trace the origin of marketing and explain how it has evolved
  • Describe the elements of a marketing strategy
  • Understand the scope of marketing
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Definition and trends within Purchasing Management

The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with an introduction to Purchasing Management in order to fully appreciate the book. The chapter presents the book's definition of Purchasing Management as well as briefly presenting the potential benefits with working at a strategic level with purchasing activities for a corporation.

Furthermore trends and historical developments within the area of Purchasing Management will be presented.

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Purchasing Organization

The structure of the purchasing department is especially important in external and internal networks. The organizational model must facilitate activities in different strategic levels as well as cope with changes in external environment. By adjusting formalization and centralization levels, the organization can be positioned to best support the organization.

However, no universal solution exists, as the right structure is highly company specific and dynamic over time. Therefore, this is one of the major challenges that Purchasing Management confronts within business networks.

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Purchasing management and internal collaboration

Strategic purchasing is most often associated with external relations. However, purchasing integration and internal collaboration are the enablers of every corporate strategy. The aim of this chapter is to explain the connections between purchasing and the company's competitive priorities as well as emphasize the need for interdepartmental collaboration.

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Sourcing Strategies of Purchasing Management

Sourcing Strategies of Purchasing Management

Sourcing is the activity of securing external components or services needed within the own internal organization. Companies employ different kinds of sourcing strategies and no one is declared to be the optimum solution. Outsourcing which is the foundation to choice of sourcing strategies also intends to align with a company's core competence focus.

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International Financial Reporting Standards

A reporting entity (which we will call “entity” from here onwards) is either a company or a group of companies, which are all controlled by the same decision maker, i.e. normally the same board of directors. This occurs when the board of directors of a company controls directly or indirectly a number of other companies, by holding directly or indirectly the absolute or relative majority of the voting rights of other companies.

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In section 2 we discussed what could look like very many confusing choices to make in finding suitable customer opportunities and framing an effective value proposition to provide the opportunity for customer satisfaction. We need to find a way to simplify these choices and in this section we do this by the use of the concepts of order qualifiers and order winners.

Order Qualifiers and Order Winners

Working back from the identified customer groupings and some understanding of what they value gives the possibility to define two sets of criteria. The first is the qualifier. Here the idea is that these are things that must be provided by any supplier to this customer group for them to even consider buying from them. However it is likely that there will be a number of suppliers who meet these requirements for otherwise there is no market but instead a supplier monopoly.

These qualifiers are necessary but not sufficient to win the business. It is like athletes trying to get to the Olympic Games. They have to produce the qualifying standards to even be allowed to compete but qualifying gets them into the competition it does not guarantee that they will win any medals. In the business competition the customers consider the offers from all those qualified to be in the competition but only the customers determine which supplier has the correct combination of features which makes them the chosen one for that particular customer. These features become the Order Winners in that marketplace.

For those suppliers trying to satisfy groups rather than individual customers the attempt is then made to identify a group of customers with similar perceptions of Order Winners and then design a supply system capable of delivering these reliably.

The order qualifiers cannot be ignored however for some of these are also order losing sensitive. This means that any small failure to meet the qualifying standard means that the ‘permission’ from the customers to be in the competition can be removed very quickly. Examples of this would include food or travel safety.

This kind of qualifier tends to remain important almost irrespective of what else is happening but others are more dynamic.

For a supplier there can be the choice of taking the expectations of the customer as a given and responding to them or trying to influence the customer to change the balance of qualifiers and order winners to be more supportive of the supplier’s most economically advantageous approaches. Thus, if most of the competitors are competing with much the same unit price for the product it might be an order winner to offer better delivery service. The service dimension then becomes the new order winner. Of course if customers move in this direction then so can the competitors and a new order qualifier, around the service dimension, is created. Here again the competition dynamics ebb and flow as customers and suppliers try different combinations of product and service features.

The further significance of the concepts of qualifiers and winners is as an aid to cross functional coordination, consistent marketing messages and corporate behaviours.

The supply side has to support the competitive approach adopted by strategic and marketing choices and has to find ways to effectively deliver on these messages in a cost effective way. Similarly there is no point in a sales person making a promise to a customer to close a sale if it is different from the agreed priorities and current capabilities of the supply system to deliver.

A promise made that cannot be delivered is no way to provide customer satisfaction.

Promises have to be properly evaluated and capability properly assigned to ensure that they can and are performed but this is a whole company responsibility and any tendency to see sales as unconnected to supply chain capability is the route to difficulties and potential disasters.

Possible Order winners and qualifiers

Core Capability

Recognizing that order winners and qualifiers can change as a result of different perceptions of customers or differentiated behaviours from competitors, we can now consider some of the features on which we can choose to compete in a given market place.

Above all else there needs to be some core capability or competence which is offered by the supplier to the customer group. This may be an existing product or service capability, which is recognized as being of value to the customer. Of course incremental changes are always possible in these areas so the challenge to the supplier is to make sure that they are at least as capable in these areas as their competitors. After this there are others which can be added into the mix.

Price

The unit price of the product or service will always be an important consideration for customers but it will seldom be the single most important factor. All other things being equal then unit price can be the differentiator or order winner but the challenge for suppliers is often to persuade their customers that the other features should be weighted more strongly so that a higher price is nevertheless seen as contributing value, as part of the overall, more attractive, package.

In many situations the unit price to buy the product becomes of reduced significance when the costs of operating, maintaining and updating the product over its extended lifetime are fully recognized and accounted for. This measure of total cost of ownership can change the balance of the economic argument for a customer as we discussed in the market imperatives section so that they move from considering value in transfer to value in use through a leasing contract rather than a purchase one.

Price can however also be difficult to fully account for since there are often inbound or purchasing and sourcing costs to allow for. The total cost of purchasing therefore should consider the extended sourcing and logistics costs of extended global supply chains, perhaps with a recognition, and financial accounting calculation, of the risk elements that might be represented by the geographical distance and boundary crossing issues.

All services are more or less designed as a coproduction of value since the supplier is never quite sure what their client might actually want until it is articulated. The process is therefore much more integrated and ideas are offered and acceptances made and modifications all flow backwards and forwards until the customer is prepared to agree with what has been coproduced and pays the acceptable fee.

Supply Chain Design

All services need to be designed and the service delivery system is a supply chain design issue however the role of design in products has more possible variations. Of course the service based example above can also apply to a physical product which goes through similar interactive processes to design and manufacture a bespoke dress or suit of clothes. Other possibilities are also feasible where there is no involvement of the customer with the product design at all. In this case they simply decide if they like the finished product and accept the price as offering acceptable value.

As we move from the make to stock end of the spectrum to the make to order end then the customer involvement increases.

These are examples of design for function but we can also be required to design for other things. For example a similar product might need to operate in extreme conditions or with particular features to allow for easy maintenance or extended reliability. Here the customer requirement will need to be more explicitly stated and understood and these features will suggest that the unit price is likely to increase to cover the extra resources involved in providing the new solution. The capability to be flexible and creative in solving these problems might well be the order winner for this section of the market place.

Design processes often embody much of the intellectual property (IP) of a business and so they need to be carefully considered and protected. For this reason great care must be exercised in outsourcing which involves the use of design knowledge to avoid leakage of the IP to another potential competitor. We will discuss this later when we talk about the issue of Offset.

Quality and value

Both of these are very important and share the same characteristic which is completely dependent on a perception which is unique to every customer. This perception can be influenced by marketing, personal interactions with supplier personnel and experience in use but they are not controllable. This is very difficult for the supply side. If we are struggling to understand what a customer values and have no independent and standard way to measure what they perceive they have received from a supplier then it is no wonder if there is a mismatch from time to time.

The more interaction between the customer and the suppliers to clarify all of this the better the fit and hopefully the higher the level of satisfaction experienced by the customer. Quality is one of the features that a supplier can use as a differentiator until all the competitors are delivering the same perceived quality levels. At that point it is simply a qualifier at that level and the competitive pressure moves to either a higher quality level or to some other factor as discussed above.

Quality is more of a process or journey towards perfection rather than a destination. The level is always increasing so the dynamic matching of expectation to capability is key here as well.

Product quality can in some cases be easier to measure with more physical measurements possible. For services, where the service delivery person represents all of the supply capability, then measurement can be more difficult and the perception of service recognized by the customer at the crucial moment of truth when they interact with the supply system, is again the critical and uncontrollable factor.

There is another potential problem however. If the supplier offers a level much higher than expected or required by a customer they simply might not value it and in fact consider that they might be being charged too much for a level of quality they did not demand. Suppliers therefore cannot afford to be too far ahead of the changing requirements of their customers.

Much juggling of requirements and performance is observed in this area.

Value is even more difficult to define for the supplier and might only be recognized after the customer has decided to buy the product or the service. Here again the more customer to supplier interaction before, during and after the transfer process, the more likely it is that satisfaction can be achieved.

Even in the ‘value in use’ scenario there is a still the requirement for the supplier to understand the customer’s requirement to tailor a solution to satisfy their needs. There may not be a transfer of ownership but still the customer has to use what has been provided and gain their own satisfaction from using a properly defined and delivered product/service package.

Delivery

Delivery against a customer requirement has two dimensions and a preferred sequence. The dimensions are reliability and speed in that order.

If we accept the image of chains of interdependent companies all interacting against the ultimate customer’s requirements then we are also describing an interdependent set of delivery promises. Here, the immediate supplier’s promise of a certain delivery date and time allows the subsequent customer (acting as the supplier to the next in line along the chain), to make their plans so that by the time all of the promises have been made and achieved then the final customer gets their order at the time they expected and planned. For this reason reliability of promises made (assuming, as discussed before, they were actually achievable) is the most important performance requirement and indicator of success.

In some cases the speed of delivery can also be important and might be an order winner on that occasion but often speed on one order means that another has to be delayed so promises of unusual speed are other examples where these promises should not be made without a clear capability to achieve them. Even here the reliability of the promise is more important because of all of the other plans that will be built on it.

Integration across boundaries

When customers require product and or services to operate together but which are sourced from different suppliers they have to perform the integration.. .or do they? A further opportunity for a supply chain solution is to act as the ‘one-stop shop’ for their customer by sourcing, delivering and installing all of the products and services needs to fulfill the higher order demand from their customers. They become system integrators for their customer.

In the manufacturing world this is often the solution provided by the first tier suppliers to companies like Apple for example where Foxconn manages just about everything to do with Apple’s products for them. As consumers we often do not know about these arrangements until something goes wrong in the supply chain and issues become very visible around the world. When this happens there is no point in the brand company (Apple in this case) trying to say it was not their fault and point a finger of blame at their supplier. Consumers buy brands and assume that the brand company will take responsibility for all that happens in their name. In this example, the outsourcing process which is presumably economically advantageous also runs a high reputational risk if the chain is not properly managed or overseen.

With complex products, complimentary products and support services all in the customer requirement mix, then the capability to perform the integration and remove that stress from the customer might be the order winner but it can change fundamentally the skill sets and systems that the supplier has to have the capability to support and use effectively. Doing this across global supply chains increases all of these complexities.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

A feature which might be regarded as additional to other considerations covered so far, is CSR. This represents what are called the triple bottom line of People, Planet and Profit. The essence of this argument is that the current generation owes a duty of care to later generations to look after the common birthright of our planet and its resources, many of which we seem to be very successfully squandering.

If the costs of thinking and behaving in this more considerate way is seen as an extra then this might be a feature that customers do not see as something they demanded or are prepared to pay for. Alternatively, if one believes the core concept of responsibility to future customers then perhaps the Marks and Spencer approach to have a CSR based Plan A, where there is no Plan B, is the only way forward.

The ultimate ambition must surely be to get to the position where a supply system incorporating the CSR dimensions can produce at apparently equal cost compared to a competitor who focuses only on the more immediate customer requirement. For many organizations this is still a number of innovations away from reality. For the time being the business model of the Fairtrade approach, which tries to put more of the supply chain value back in the hands of the core produce producers for tea, coffee, cocoa etc., is that customers have to buy into the principle economically by paying a higher price at the retail outlet.

If the customer market place has groups with different views on this then there might need to be customer segmentation and dedicated supply chains providing different end results.

This last realization leads us to the final potential order winner.

Data and analytics

In all of the discussion so far we have been describing a complex and dynamically fast flowing situation trying to match changing customer requirements to appropriate supply chain capabilities and solutions. As the volume of data increases exponentially there is an increasing demand for people and computer systems that can make sense out of the data noise. This so called big data issue is critical in the global supply chains we have been discussing.

Understanding, anticipating, influencing and responding to changing market opportunities needs to be matched with extensive, cross company information on the supply side. Much of this is becoming more and more real time and driven by the internet of things applications where real world items can communicate information which will allow for the closer coordination of the physical distribution of products and people.

The ability to recognize and respond quickly, reliably and economically to these changing situations might well be the most important order winner of all. However, many organizations are still struggling with the need to properly manage their current supply chain capabilities so perhaps only the really farsighted and investment driven organizations will be the leaders in these developments. We have however indicated that if this is the order winner for the near future it will become the order qualifier not long after that.

Summary

In this section we have discussed how order qualifiers allow you to compete but only the order winners (as defined by the customers) produce market success. This is highly dynamic and also affected by the behavior of the other players in the market place, which can include regulators and government legislators (perhaps imposing some CSR requirements).

Many things can act as qualifiers and order winners and these will change over time so here again highly strategic decisions need to be made. These need to consider not just the capabilities of the focal company but allow for all of the capabilities which can be accessed through effective supply chain relationships with other resource and capability providers.

Having now considered the complications on the market side of the business relationship we will now move to consider the supply side choices, which have to be made to allocate the needed capability to the required customer expectation.

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