ERP in Managementul lanţului de aprovizionare

In acest articol prezentam o extensie de ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) intitulata SCM (Supply Chain Management).

Managementul lantului de aprovizionare (Supply Chain Management, SCM)

O definitie generala a conceptului de lant de aprovizionare (supply chain) al unei întreprinderi include toti furnizorii, capacitatile de productie, centrele de distributie, depozitele si clientii, împreuna cu materiile prime, stocul de produse semifabricate si stocul de produse finite si cu toate resursele si informatiile implicate în satisfacerea cerintelor clientilor.

Read more ...

Productie si Aprovizionare

Departamentul de productie și aprovizionare

Procesul de productie poate fi definit ca fiind totalitatea actiunilor constiente ale angajatilor unei întreprinderi, îndreptate asupra materiilor prime, cu ajutorul diferitelor masini, utilaje sau instalatii, materialelor sau a altor componente în scopul transformarii lor în produse, lucrari sau servicii cu anumita valoare de piata.

Read more ...

Structura cheltuielilor publice din bugetul de stat

Notiunea de cheltuiala publica s-a conturat pe fundalul aparitiei si evolutiei consumului de resurse, în forma baneasca, pentru satisfacerea de nevoi publice, fiind utilizata cu mai multe acceptiuni, atât în teorie, cât si în pactica, dintre care, se invoca, cel mai adesea, sensul juridic si cel economic.

Read more ...

Mixul de marketing în serviciile de consultanta

Orientarea de marketing a afacerii de consultanta

Consultanta este un serviciu profesional de consiliere prin care se ofera asistenta specializata, sfaturi, solutii si ajutor independent pentru rezolvarea problemelor si îmbunatatirea conducerii organizatiilor.

Comercializarea serviciilor profesionale de consultanta este necesara pentru obtinerea segmentului de piata pe care prestatorul îl merita din punct de vedere profesional si pentru a pune consultantul în legatura cu clientii care au nevoie de el si care nu cunosc oferta firmei de consultanta.

Read more ...

Mixul de marketing si pachetul complex de produse si servicii

REZUMAT: De la aparitia sa si pana în prezent, marketingul a fost abordat sub diferite aspecte, de la teorii de piata la elemente constitutive, toate s-au axat pe cele patru elemente ale mixului de marketing: produs, pret, plasament si promovare, în jurul lor dezvoltandu-se politicile specifice, corelatiile dintre acestea, metodele si tehnicile de investigare, textele experimentale, studiile de motivatii.

Read more ...

Înfiintarea si gestionarea unei firme, oportunitati si riscuri - analiza SWOT

Înfiintarea unei firme - cadrul legal

În Romania, persoana/grupul de persoane care doresc sa initieze o afacere poate/pot realiza aceasta conform reglementarilor legale privitoare la modul de înfiintare, înregistrare si la formele pe care le poate lua o societate comerciala, cuprinse în Legea 31/1990.

Read more ...

Regulamentul prestarii serviciilor de transport si expeditie

Dispozitii generale

1. Prezentul Regulament este elaborat de catre Ministerul Transporturilor si Comunicatiilor în conformitate cu articolele 2 si 54 ale Codului transporturilor auto (Legea organica nr. 116-XIV din 29.07.98, M.O. nr.90-91, art.581) si stabileste modul deservirii de transport si expeditie în Republica Moldova.

2. Prestarile serviciilor de transport si expeditie - sînt deservirea de transport si expeditie ca activitate de productie, care consta în organizarea transportarii marfurilor, asigurarea expedierii si primirii lor, executarea sau organizarea executarii altor operatiuni aferente tuturor etapelor de transportare.

Read more ...

Activitatea si rolurile managerului in organizatie

Managerul este un individ sau un grup de indivizi care asigură desfăşurarea procesului de management indeplinind funcţii manageriale şi de execuţie.

Managerul diferă de leader prin poziţia şi autoritatea oficială de care dispune. Managerul prezintă cateva trăsături şi anume:

Bilanţul contabil – procedeu de bază al contabilităţii

Noţiuni privind bilanţul şi importanţa lui

În scopul formării unei imagini complete, clare şi precise asupra activităţii economice desfăşurate de întreprindere, apare necesitatea întocmirii bilanţului contabil. Cu ajutorul bilanţului contabil se realizează principala trăsătură a metodei contabilităţii care este dubla reprezentare a averii. Bilanţul contabil reflectă în expresie valorică, la un moment dat, echilibrul dintre bunurile economice şi sursele de finanţare a acestora. Bilanţul se prezintă sub forma unui tabel, format din două părţi: partea stîngă, denumită activ, care reflectă bunurile economice şi partea dreaptă, denumită pasiv care reflectă sursele de finanţare a bunurilor economice reflectate în activ.

Read more ...

Structura organizatorica a întreprinderii

Ca expresie a organizarii formale, structura organizatorica a unei întreprinderi se proiecteaza pe baza unor norme, reguli, principii si documente oficiale.

Structura întreprinderii , componenta a structurii generale a firmei, reflecta “anatomia întreprinderii”; modul de concepere, detaliere si implementare a acesteia influenteaza nemijlocit activitatile impuse de realizarea obiectivelor întreprinderii.

Read more ...

Particularitatile transporturilor internationale

Transporturile internationale rutiere

Daca prin transporturi interne se înteleg trasporturile efectuate între localitati sau în interiorul localitatilor unei tari, prin transporturi internationale întelegem acele transporturi care traverseaza cel putin o frontiera de stat, punctele de expediere si de destinatie a marfii fiind situate în tari diferite.

Transportul rutier prezinta avantajul ca se realizeaza direct din poarta în poarta si cu o mare rapiditate. Efectuarea transportului direct permite o mai buna conservare a marfii si reducerea cheltuielilor cu ambalarea si manipularea intermediara.

Read more ...

Transporturile de materii prime, materiale si marfuri

Alegerea modului de transport este o parte fundamentala a managementului distributiei si trebuie analizata cu atentie, datorita impactului sau asupra eficientei operationale a firmei. Esecul în identificarea celui mai potrivit mod de transport poate produce costuri mai mari decat cele necesare.

Read more ...

Clasele DataInputStream si DataOutputStream

Aceste clase ofera metode prin care un flux nu mai este vazut ca o însiruire de octeti, ci ca o sursa de date primitive. Prin urmare vor furniza metode pentru citirea si scrierea datelor la nivel de tip de data si nu la nivel de octet. Constructorii si metodele cele mai importante sunt urmatoarele:

Read more ...

Clasa File

Clasa File nu se refera doar la un fisier ci poate reprezenta fie un fisier anume, fie multimea fisierelor dintr-un director. O instanta a acestei clase poate sa reprezinte asadar:un fisier sau un director. Specificarea unui fisier/director se face prin introducerea caii absolute spre acel fisier sau a caii relative fata de directorul curent. Acestea trebuie sa respecte conventiile de specificare a cailor si numelor fisierelor de pe masina gazda. Utilitate clasei File consta în furnizarea unei modalitati de a abstractiza dependentele cailor si numelor fisierelor fata de masina gazda precun si punerea la dispozitie a unor metode pentru lucrul cu fisere si directoare la nivelul sistemului de operare.

Read more ...

Utilizarea claselor StringTokenizer si StreamTokenizer

Biblioteca Java.uitl defineste clasa StringTokenizer care faciliteaza separarea unui sir de caractere in simboluri. Pentru a separa un sir de caractere, trebuie sa cream un obiect StringTokenizer, specificand sirul si caracterul special, utilizat de sir pentru a indica(delimita componenetele). Constructorii acestei clase sunt:

Read more ...

Consumer price index – september 2016

The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.3 percent in September on a seasonally adjusted basis, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the last 12 months, the all items index rose 1.5 percent before seasonal adjustment.

Increases in the shelter and gasoline indexes were the main causes of the rise in the all items index. The gasoline index rose 5.8 percent in September and accounted for more than half of the all items increase. The shelter index increased 0.4 percent, its largest increase since May.

Read more ...

Inflation: Causes, Costs, and Current Status

Since the end of World War II, the United States has experienced almost continuous inflation— the general rise in the price of goods and services. It would be difficult to find a similar period in American history before that war. Indeed, prior to World War II, the United States often experienced long periods of deflation. It is worth noting that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in 1941 was virtually at the same level as in 1807.

Read more ...

Economies of scale: the bigger the factory, the lower the cost

IN CONTEXT

FOCUS

Markets and firms

KEY THINKER

Alfred Marshall (1842–1924)

BEFORE

1776 Adam Smith explains how large firms can lower unit costs through labor division.

1848 John Stuart Mill suggests that only large firms can adapt successfully to certain business changes, and that this can lead to the creation of natural monopolies.

Read more ...

Efficiency and fairness : make one person better off without hurting the others

IN CONTEXT:

FOCUS

Welfare economics

KEY THINKER

Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923)

BEFORE

1776 Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations relates self-interest to social welfare.

1871 British economist William Jevons says that value depends entirely on utility.

1874 French economist Léon Walras uses equations to determine the overall equilibrium of an economy.

AFTER

1930–50 John Hicks, Paul Samuelson, and others use Pareto optimality as the basis of modern welfare economics.

1954 US economist Kenneth Arrow and French economist Gérard Debreu use mathematics to show a connection between free markets and Pareto optimality.

Read more ...

Opportunity cost the cost of going to the movies is the fun you’d have had at the ice rink

KEY THINKER

Friedrich von Wieser (1851–1926)

BEFORE

1817 David Ricardo argues that the value of a commodity is determined by the amount of labor hours used to produce it.

AFTER

1920 Alfred Marshall argues in Principles of Economics that both supply and demand have a role in determining price.

Read more ...

The competitive market: companies are price takers not price makers 2

The assumptions of Marshall’s model create certain consequences for firms in perfectly competitive industries. One of the most important of these is that firms have no power over the price that they can charge. This is because there are so many firms selling an identical product that if any one firm attempts to sell at a price higher than its competitors, it will sell nothing. This is virtually guaranteed because the consumer has perfect knowledge about the prices being asked by all firms. In this way the market price is determined by the collective interaction of all the firms and consumers, and each firm has to accept that one particular price is the price at which they can sell the product. They have to “take” the price, not make it.

Read more ...

The competitive market: companies are price takers not price makers

In the late 18th century Adam Smith wrote about the impact of competition on firms’ abilities to set prices and make profits above a “natural” level.

However, there was no formal analysis of the situation until British economist Alfred Marshall published Economic Principles in 1890. The ideas in Marshall’s model remain a key part of mainstream economic theory, although the theory has been criticized as not representing the true nature of competition.

Read more ...

Economic equilibrium : a system of free markets is stable

There has long been something appealing for economists about the idea that the economy may behave with the same mathematical predictability of scientific laws such as Newton’s laws of motion. Newton’s laws reduce the whole complex, teeming, physical universe to three simple, reliable mathematical relationships. Is it possible to find similar relationships in the complex, changing world of markets?

In 1851, a British professor named Francis Edgeworth published Mathematical Psychics, an early mathematical work on economics. He realized that economics deals with relationships between variables, which means that it can be translated into equations. Edgeworth thought about economic benefits in utilitarian terms. In other words believing that outcomes could be measured in terms of units of happiness, or pleasure.

Read more ...

Elasticity of demand: if you get a pay raise, buy caviar not bread

The “elasticity” of demand is its responsiveness to changes in another factor, such as price. British economist Alfred Marshall is generally credited as the first economist to define the concept in 1890, but the German statistician Ernst Engel published a paper five years earlier, showing how changes in income alter the level of demand. The origins of the concept may be disputed, but its importance is not.

Read more ...

An Economy Producing Consumption Goods: Model I

Figure 2.1 depicts Model I. Here, we imagine an economy that produces only consumption goods. To keep Model I as simple as possible we further suppose that the only consumption good is cars. These cars are produced by firms which are staffed by the households and owned by the households. To put it in the language of economics, the two factors of production are labor and capital, and the households own both of them. There is no role for government or for the rest-of-the-world in Model I, so these sectors are omitted.

Read more ...

Robinson Crusoe's National Income

We all have an understanding of the concept of income on an individual level and what our own income is. But how should we measure the income of a whole economy? What is the relation between our income and the value of what we produce? To find the nation’s income do we just add up the incomes of the household, business, and government sectors? And how does the rest-of-the-world enter the picture? What does the nation spend its income on, and what does it save? How does savings relate to investment?

Read more ...

Business Cycle Theory

It has frequently been observed that interest in business or trade cycle theory is itself cyclical (e.g. Zarnowitz 1985, p.524). In periods of sustained prosperity interest wanes, as it did in the 1960s and early 1970s when research into macroeconomic dynamics concentrated on growth theory. At the end of the 1960s the continued existence of business cycles was questioned. The experiences of the 1970s and early 1980s, especially following the 1973 and 1979 oil price shocks, brought a resurgence of interest in business cycles. In this introductory section, the main themes in business cycle research in the 1980s will be reviewed. In section: Equilibrium Business Cycle (EBC) Modelling, the equilibrium approach to business cycle modelling, which has been dominant in the 1980s, will be discussed in more detail. In section: Nonlinear Cycle Theory, recent contributions by economists who do not accept that the business cycle can be adequately modelled using the linear Frisch-Slutsky approach, and that nonlinearities must be introduced, will be surveyed in order to update the survey of nonlinear business cycle models in Mullineux (1984,). This chapter does not seek to provide a comprehensive survey of the vast literature on business cycles. Zarnowitz (1985) has recently made a Herculean attempt at this.

Read more ...

Elements of geoeconomics

The historical method has been largely discredited since the Second World War. Part of the reason is that people have been learning less history since then, so the phenomenon becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy, a downward spiral. The disciplines of history and geography have been systematically neglected, in the USA and indeed in the West more generally, right up to university level. If we knew more history, this would strengthen our ability to draw historical parallels, and thus to make more accurate predictions about future events. Instead it is often wrongly assumed that we know as much as there is to know about history. The field of economics suffers greatly as a consequence.

Read more ...

Investing: Taking Risks With Your Savings

People keep their savings in banks and savings and loan associations because they want a safe rate of interest. If people are willing to take a chance on earning a higher rate of return, however, they can invest their savings in other ways. Stocks and bonds offer investors greater returns, but, at least for stocks, with more risk. As you read this section, you’ll learn hat stocks and bonds are, and why they carry a risk.

Read more ...

Global Supply Chain Operations

To date, our world market is dominated mostly by many well established global brands. Over the last three decades, there have been a steady trend of global market convergence – the tendency that indigenous markets start converge on a set of similar products or services across the world. The end-result of the global market convergence is that companies have succeeded on their products or services now have the whole wide world to embrace for their marketing as well as sourcing.

Read more ...

Definition and trends within Purchasing Management

The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with an introduction to Purchasing Management in order to fully appreciate the book. The chapter presents the book's definition of Purchasing Management as well as briefly presenting the potential benefits with working at a strategic level with purchasing activities for a corporation.

Furthermore trends and historical developments within the area of Purchasing Management will be presented.

Read more ...

Purchasing Organization

The structure of the purchasing department is especially important in external and internal networks. The organizational model must facilitate activities in different strategic levels as well as cope with changes in external environment. By adjusting formalization and centralization levels, the organization can be positioned to best support the organization. However, no universal solution exists, as the right structure is highly company specific and dynamic over time. Therefore, this is one of the major challenges that Purchasing Management confronts within business networks.

Read more ...

The Market Economy

Economics is the study of the market economy.The market economy refers to an abstract image of interaction among purposeful, "normal human beings," or actors, under a given set of conditions. The set of conditions are four:

  • a system of private property rights,

  • specialization,

  • the use of money

  • free enterprise .

Read more ...

The Future Challenges supply chain management

What’s the future holds for supply chain management? The future of supply chain management is the future of the business management when there will be no business that is not part of a supply chain. The paradigm of business management will soon be converged to the paradigm of supply chain management. To precisely fortune-tell the future of supply chains is meaningless. But what’s useful is to identify and explore some challenges that we better prepare ourselves for. Three key challenges have been identified and discussed here.

Read more ...

An Overview of Economics

Economics is one of the oldest and most influential of intellectual disciplines. Practically all of the great thinkers, from Aristotle to Einstein, have tried their hand at it, and the great economists like Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, John Maynard Keynes and Milton Friedman rank among the most influential minds in our history. The economic paradigm permeates our thinking about practically every area of human activity. Military analysts talk in terms of “assets” and “trade offs” while theologians quote economic statistics. Adam Smith’s ideas about competition had a strong influence on Charles Darwin’s study of biology. Insect colonies are said to “invest” in nest building. Our thinking about politics and social behavior draws heavily on ideas about incentives, trading, and maximization that come from economics.

Read more ...
Back to Top