Comerţul integrat

Comerţul integrat reprezintă un sistem de organizare a activităţii comerciale, în cadrul căruia întreprinderile cumulează atît funcţiile comerţului cu ridicata, cît şi ale aceluia cu amănuntul. Sistemul respectiv poate îmbrăca diverse forme concrete de materializare: organizarea unor mari magazine, magazine populare, magazine cu sucursale, diverse forme cooperatiste etc.

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Formele cooperatiste ale comerţului integrat

Formele cooperatiste ale comerţului integrat cunosc şi ele, la rîndul lor, mai multe modalităţi concrete de realizare, structura sistemului cuprinzînd, în principal, comerţul realizat de cooperaţia de consum şi pe cel organizat de către cooperative ale unor întreprinderi sau ale administraţiei.

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Sistemul acordurilor de franciză

Conţinutul şi structura acordurilor de franciză.

Din punct de vedere managerial, sistemul reprezintă un compromis între forme de distribuţie şi metode de vînzare. Franciza în sine se prezintă sub forma unui contract încheiat între un "francizor", care acordă anumite drepturi de folosire a unei mari firme sau tehnologii comerciale şi un "franciz", comerciant care cumpăra dreptul respectiv.

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Noţiunea de bază tehnico-materială a comerţului

Pentru desfăşurarea activităţii sale, comerţul dispune de un anumit potenţial material, uman şi financiar, denumit resursele lui economice. Ele sunt forma de concretizare a capitalului comercial şi a forţei de muncă angajate în comerţ ca factori de producţie.

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Transporturile de materii prime, materiale si marfuri

Alegerea modului de transport este o parte fundamentala a managementului distributiei si trebuie analizata cu atentie, datorita impactului sau asupra eficientei operationale a firmei. Esecul în identificarea celui mai potrivit mod de transport poate produce costuri mai mari decat cele necesare.

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Particularitatile transporturilor internationale

Transporturile internationale rutiere

Daca prin transporturi interne se înteleg trasporturile efectuate între localitati sau în interiorul localitatilor unei tari, prin transporturi internationale întelegem acele transporturi care traverseaza cel putin o frontiera de stat, punctele de expediere si de destinatie a marfii fiind situate în tari diferite.

Transportul rutier prezinta avantajul ca se realizeaza direct din poarta în poarta si cu o mare rapiditate. Efectuarea transportului direct permite o mai buna conservare a marfii si reducerea cheltuielilor cu ambalarea si manipularea intermediara.

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Strategia de produs

Opţiunile strategice ale oricărei întreprinderii trebuie să plece, mai întâi de la o analiză profundă a ceea ce se întâmplă pe piaţă cu produsele întreprinderii. Acest lucru se poate realiza prin utilizarea unor metode performante de analiză a portofoliului de produse (bunuri materiale sau servicii) din cadrul întreprinderii, metoda BCG, Metoda General Electric, Analiza SWOT etc. 

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Baza tehnico-materială a comerţului cu amănuntul

Mărimea şi structura bazei tehnico-materiale a comerţului cu amănuntul răspund cerinţelor acestei forme de comerţ şi anume de difuzare largă a mărfurilor în toate localităţile ţării, iar în cadrul fiecărei localităţi de apropiere a mărfurilor de consumatori.

Această funcţionalitate este asigurată prin varietatea de tipuri de unităţi ca profil şi mărime care compun reţeaua comercială şi printr-o dotare specifică proceselor operative cerute de vînzarea mărfurilor.

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Baza tehnico-materială a comerţului cu ridicata

Caracteristicile comerţului cu ridicata şi, în primul rînd, vehicularea mărfurilor în partizi mari se răsfrînge şi asupra structurii bazei sale tehnico-materiale.

Clădirile pentru depozite, instalaţiile, mobilierul şi utilajele din depozit sunt dimensionate în raport cu cerinţele activităţii economice a acestora, respectiv primirii şi păstrării mărfurilor, pregătirii comenzilor şi expedierii produselor către beneficiari, în principal în sistem mecanizat, adică folosind conteinere, palete şi mijloace de transport adaptate vehiculării fiecărui tip de produse.

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Corelarea bazei tehnico-materiale cu volumul activitătii economice

Ca resursă economică, baza tehnico-materială a societăţilor comerciale se corelează cu volumul activităţii economice a acestora, între ele existînd un raport de intercondiţionare; baza tehnico-materială este determinată de volumul activităţii economice, dar, la rîndul său, pe o piaţă concurenţială, nivelul de dezvoltare şi modernizare a ei este o condiţie a prosperităţii oricărei firme.

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Progresul tehnic în comerţ

Baza tehnico-materială a comerţului se perfecţionează continuu ca urmare a progresului tehnic din economie. Acesta se extinde din sfera producţiei, unde găseşte cîmpul cel mai larg de afirmare, în toate sectoarele care asigură pregătirea şi realizarea producţiei, datorită interdependenţei dintre ramurile economiei naţionale.

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Dictionarul aditivilor alimentari

E555 (silicatul de aluminiu si potasiu) este folosit in sare, lapte praf si faina. Desi se cunoaste ca aluminiul este cauza unor probleme placentare in timpul sarcinii si ca este asociat cu boala Alzheimer, este permis in Romania.

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Industria pestelui

Pestele reprezinta un aliment extrem de valoros prin continutul sau în proteine de calitate superioara, grasime bogata în acizi grasi polinesaturati cu o mare eficienta in organismul uman, vitamine (in principal A si D) si substante minerale (fier, fosfor, potasiu, magneziu etc.).

Nivelul de sodiu este scazut, ceea ce face ca pestele si în principal pestele slab sa fie folosit in dieta bolnavilor cardiaci sau a bolnavilor d,e rinichi, a bolnavilor de diabet (nu contine hidrati de carbon), în alimentatia copiilor, a persoanelor în vîrsta, dar si a adultilor si copiilor sanatosi.

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Toxine din peste si alte specii acvatice

Toxine din icre.

Icrele unor pesti din marile Japoniei si Chinei cum ar fi: Fugu niphobles, poecilonotum, vermiculare-vermiculare pardale, vermiculare, porphyreum, ocellatus, obscurum con~in o toxina numi,ta tetrodotoxina (TTX). Toxina se poate concentra in ficat si foarte puţin in musculatura. Tetrodotoxina este produsa de unele specii de bacterii marine, inclusiv de bacteriile intestinale ale unor vieţuitoare marine.

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Valoarea nutritiva – metodologia determinarii si modalitati de declarare

Produsul alimentar este constituit dintr-un complex de substante organice si anorganice, care nu contine numai substante utile, necesare organismului uman (nutritive), ci si substante indiferente, iar în unele cazuri chiar substante antinutritionale.

Substantele utile din alimente, din punct de vedere al rolului pe care îl au în organismul uman, se grupeaza în:

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Exchange rate determination and the Mundell-Fleming model

The open economy

So far, our model for exchange rate determination has been very simple. We have assumed that domestic interest rates are unaffected by foreign interest rates. We begin this chapter by looking more carefully at this assumption (the classical model of exchange rate determination). Then, a more realistic model of exchange rate determination is considered.

Finally, we will discuss the Mundell- Fleming model (MF-model).

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Inflation: Causes, Costs, and Current Status

Since the end of World War II, the United States has experienced almost continuous inflation— the general rise in the price of goods and services. It would be difficult to find a similar period in American history before that war. Indeed, prior to World War II, the United States often experienced long periods of deflation. It is worth noting that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in 1941 was virtually at the same level as in 1807.

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Supply Chain Design and Planning

One of the important issues in supply chain management is to design and plan out the overall architecture of the supply chain network and the value adding flows that go through it. This means that managers should step back and looks at the supply chain as a whole and formulates strategies and processes that maximise the total supply chain value-adding and minimises the total supply chain costs.

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International Practice of Transport Insurance

Motor-vehicle insurance

Motor-vehicle insurance is one of the kinds of transport insurance whose objects are mechanised and other means of transport. This kind of insurance is voluntary.

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The Insurance of Responsibility on the International Level

The insurance of the civil responsibility of car-owners.

Insuring the civil responsibility of car-owners, underwriter undertakes to compensate damages to third persons that resulted from the insurer’s maintenance of the automobile. On the territory of RM this kind of insurance is obligatory.

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Economic and Political Risks Insurance

Commercial risks insurance.

Entrepreneur activities and insurance are two closely interconnected categories of the market economy.

The main aim of entrepreneur activities is getting profit, increasing capital invested into business. That is why insurance against possible loss of expected profit or unearned profit becomes very important.

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Personal Insurance

Life insurance

The distinguishing feature of this insurance is its double function: risk and accumulative one. Life insurance contract can be concluded in favour of a physical person from his birth (but at the moment of concluding the contract his or her age should not exceed 70 years old). Insurance contract can’t be concluded in favour of disable persons, if they are more than 49% disable (I and II group invalids).

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Reinsurance

The essence and the meaning of reinsurance.

Reinsurance is a system of economic relations in the process of which the underwriter, undertaking insurance against risks, passes part of their liability on (taking into account his financial possibilities) to other underwriters under agreed conditions in order to create a portfolio of insurance contracts, to provide financial stability and profitability of insurance activities.

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The marketing plan


Improving your competitive edge

A Marketing Plan is a written strategy for selling the products/services of a new business. It is a reflection of how serious a company is in meeting the competition head on, with strategies and plans to increase market share and attract customers. An effective Marketing Plan is backed by carefully collected market, consumer and competitor information, sometimes citing professional advice.

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The Law of Supply and the Supply Curve

As you’ve learned, consumers demand products and services at the lowest possible prices. In contrast, suppliers like Microsoft exist to make a profit—hopefully, a big profit. As you read this section, you’ll learn about the law of supply and how it is geared toward making profits.

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Economic Systems

The economy of India is expanding, thanks in large part to growth in industries like call centers and software development. The economies of many other nations are changing as well, while others, like that of the United States, have remained relatively stable for many years. In this section, you’ll learn that each nation’s economy depends on how that nation chooses to use its resources to satisfy people’s wants and needs.

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Characteristics of the American Economy

In a market economy, producers often spend large amounts to make sure that consumers—even very young children—know the names and logos of their products. This is because free-market consumers have freedom of choice, and they will often choose brand names they recognize. In this section, you’ll learn more about freedom of choice and the other major charactistics of a market economic system.

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What Is Economics

The BIG Idea

Scarcity is the basic economic problem that requires people to make choices about how to use limited resources.

Why It Matters ?

Have you ever wanted to buy something or to participate in an activity, but you couldn’t because you didn’t have enough income or time? How do scarce resources like time and income affect you and everyone around you? In this chapter, read to learn about what economics is and how it is part of your daily life.

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Keynesian cross model

The Keynesian model

In this chapter we will look at the Keynesian cross model. This model is a simple version of what we call the ”complete Keynesian model” or simply the Keynesian model. The Keynesian model has as its origin the writings of John Maynard Keynes in the 1930s, particularly the book ”The general theory of Employment, Interest, and Money”. Although this book was written as a criticism of the classical model, the similarities between the Keynesian model and the classical model are definitely greater than the differences. Lets point out the three most important differences directly:

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The complete Keynesian model

Wage inflation

In this chapter, we will continue to develop the Keynesian model removing the assumption of fixed nominal wages. We define wage inflation πw as the percentage average increase in wages. Wages and wage inflation are still exogenous, i.e. they are not determined within the model. One justification for this assumption is that wages often are determined by agreements which often last for several years.

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Agile supply chain management

The Need for Agility

Having understood the impact and the undisputable success of the lean philosophy applied in many organisations world over. Can we come to a conclusion that the next milestone, after the craft production and mass production, is going to be the lean production? To answer this question, one needs to first establish whether the lean approach can fit to all business environments now and in the future. Researches and literatures so far appear to believe the otherwise.

The critical argument here is that the lean system was developed from a forecasting based volume production industrial sector where the market differentiator is reliability and cost, and today large part of our global market is variety dominated and the differentiator is speed and responsiveness. Hence, lean probably is not a cure-all approach after all.

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What is Microeconomics

It is already apparent from this brief overview that the subject of economics is a very broad one. Just as the study of the physical world is divided into fields such as physics and chemistry, economics is likewise divided into fields comprised of closely related topics. The two major fields of economics are micro economics and macro economics. Since the second is the subject of this book, let's take a minute to review what microeconomics is about.

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Order qualifiers and order winners

In section 2 we discussed what could look like very many confusing choices to make in finding suitable customer opportunities and framing an effective value proposition to provide the opportunity for customer satisfaction. We need to find a way to simplify these choices and in this section we do this by the use of the concepts of order qualifiers and order winners.

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The AD-AS model

The problem with the IS-LM model

The starting point of the AD-AS model is an assumption in the IS-LM model (and in the cross model) that limits its usefulness. This is the assumption that if firms where to choose the profit maximizing quantity of L (LOPT), they would produce more than the aggregate demand. In the IS-LM, YOPT > YD must hold as discussed in section Aggregate supply. To realize why this is a problem in the IS-LM model, we gradually increase the aggregate demand byincreasing G. We can illustrate the process using figure 12.6 in Section The Labor Market

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The Four Sectors of the Economy

Modern complex economies involve the interactions of large numbers of people and organizations. These economic agents fall into one of three categories: business, households, government, and the rest-of-the-world. Economists find it useful to think of these groupings as sectors of the economy. Let's look at each of these sectors in turn:

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