ERP in Managementul lanţului de aprovizionare

In acest articol prezentam o extensie de ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) intitulata SCM (Supply Chain Management).

Managementul lantului de aprovizionare (Supply Chain Management, SCM)

O definitie generala a conceptului de lant de aprovizionare (supply chain) al unei întreprinderi include toti furnizorii, capacitatile de productie, centrele de distributie, depozitele si clientii, împreuna cu materiile prime, stocul de produse semifabricate si stocul de produse finite si cu toate resursele si informatiile implicate în satisfacerea cerintelor clientilor.

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Productie si Aprovizionare

Departamentul de productie și aprovizionare

Procesul de productie poate fi definit ca fiind totalitatea actiunilor constiente ale angajatilor unei întreprinderi, îndreptate asupra materiilor prime, cu ajutorul diferitelor masini, utilaje sau instalatii, materialelor sau a altor componente în scopul transformarii lor în produse, lucrari sau servicii cu anumita valoare de piata.

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Structura cheltuielilor publice din bugetul de stat

Notiunea de cheltuiala publica s-a conturat pe fundalul aparitiei si evolutiei consumului de resurse, în forma baneasca, pentru satisfacerea de nevoi publice, fiind utilizata cu mai multe acceptiuni, atât în teorie, cât si în pactica, dintre care, se invoca, cel mai adesea, sensul juridic si cel economic.

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Mixul de marketing în serviciile de consultanta

Orientarea de marketing a afacerii de consultanta

Consultanta este un serviciu profesional de consiliere prin care se ofera asistenta specializata, sfaturi, solutii si ajutor independent pentru rezolvarea problemelor si îmbunatatirea conducerii organizatiilor.

Comercializarea serviciilor profesionale de consultanta este necesara pentru obtinerea segmentului de piata pe care prestatorul îl merita din punct de vedere profesional si pentru a pune consultantul în legatura cu clientii care au nevoie de el si care nu cunosc oferta firmei de consultanta.

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Mixul de marketing si pachetul complex de produse si servicii

REZUMAT: De la aparitia sa si pana în prezent, marketingul a fost abordat sub diferite aspecte, de la teorii de piata la elemente constitutive, toate s-au axat pe cele patru elemente ale mixului de marketing: produs, pret, plasament si promovare, în jurul lor dezvoltandu-se politicile specifice, corelatiile dintre acestea, metodele si tehnicile de investigare, textele experimentale, studiile de motivatii.

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Înfiintarea si gestionarea unei firme, oportunitati si riscuri - analiza SWOT

Înfiintarea unei firme - cadrul legal

În Romania, persoana/grupul de persoane care doresc sa initieze o afacere poate/pot realiza aceasta conform reglementarilor legale privitoare la modul de înfiintare, înregistrare si la formele pe care le poate lua o societate comerciala, cuprinse în Legea 31/1990.

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Regulamentul prestarii serviciilor de transport si expeditie

Dispozitii generale

1. Prezentul Regulament este elaborat de catre Ministerul Transporturilor si Comunicatiilor în conformitate cu articolele 2 si 54 ale Codului transporturilor auto (Legea organica nr. 116-XIV din 29.07.98, M.O. nr.90-91, art.581) si stabileste modul deservirii de transport si expeditie în Republica Moldova.

2. Prestarile serviciilor de transport si expeditie - sînt deservirea de transport si expeditie ca activitate de productie, care consta în organizarea transportarii marfurilor, asigurarea expedierii si primirii lor, executarea sau organizarea executarii altor operatiuni aferente tuturor etapelor de transportare.

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Activitatea si rolurile managerului in organizatie

Managerul este un individ sau un grup de indivizi care asigură desfăşurarea procesului de management indeplinind funcţii manageriale şi de execuţie.

Managerul diferă de leader prin poziţia şi autoritatea oficială de care dispune. Managerul prezintă cateva trăsături şi anume:

Bilanţul contabil – procedeu de bază al contabilităţii

Noţiuni privind bilanţul şi importanţa lui

În scopul formării unei imagini complete, clare şi precise asupra activităţii economice desfăşurate de întreprindere, apare necesitatea întocmirii bilanţului contabil. Cu ajutorul bilanţului contabil se realizează principala trăsătură a metodei contabilităţii care este dubla reprezentare a averii. Bilanţul contabil reflectă în expresie valorică, la un moment dat, echilibrul dintre bunurile economice şi sursele de finanţare a acestora. Bilanţul se prezintă sub forma unui tabel, format din două părţi: partea stîngă, denumită activ, care reflectă bunurile economice şi partea dreaptă, denumită pasiv care reflectă sursele de finanţare a bunurilor economice reflectate în activ.

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Structura organizatorica a întreprinderii

Ca expresie a organizarii formale, structura organizatorica a unei întreprinderi se proiecteaza pe baza unor norme, reguli, principii si documente oficiale.

Structura întreprinderii , componenta a structurii generale a firmei, reflecta “anatomia întreprinderii”; modul de concepere, detaliere si implementare a acesteia influenteaza nemijlocit activitatile impuse de realizarea obiectivelor întreprinderii.

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Particularitatile transporturilor internationale

Transporturile internationale rutiere

Daca prin transporturi interne se înteleg trasporturile efectuate între localitati sau în interiorul localitatilor unei tari, prin transporturi internationale întelegem acele transporturi care traverseaza cel putin o frontiera de stat, punctele de expediere si de destinatie a marfii fiind situate în tari diferite.

Transportul rutier prezinta avantajul ca se realizeaza direct din poarta în poarta si cu o mare rapiditate. Efectuarea transportului direct permite o mai buna conservare a marfii si reducerea cheltuielilor cu ambalarea si manipularea intermediara.

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Transporturile de materii prime, materiale si marfuri

Alegerea modului de transport este o parte fundamentala a managementului distributiei si trebuie analizata cu atentie, datorita impactului sau asupra eficientei operationale a firmei. Esecul în identificarea celui mai potrivit mod de transport poate produce costuri mai mari decat cele necesare.

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Clasele DataInputStream si DataOutputStream

Aceste clase ofera metode prin care un flux nu mai este vazut ca o însiruire de octeti, ci ca o sursa de date primitive. Prin urmare vor furniza metode pentru citirea si scrierea datelor la nivel de tip de data si nu la nivel de octet. Constructorii si metodele cele mai importante sunt urmatoarele:

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Clasa File

Clasa File nu se refera doar la un fisier ci poate reprezenta fie un fisier anume, fie multimea fisierelor dintr-un director. O instanta a acestei clase poate sa reprezinte asadar:un fisier sau un director. Specificarea unui fisier/director se face prin introducerea caii absolute spre acel fisier sau a caii relative fata de directorul curent. Acestea trebuie sa respecte conventiile de specificare a cailor si numelor fisierelor de pe masina gazda. Utilitate clasei File consta în furnizarea unei modalitati de a abstractiza dependentele cailor si numelor fisierelor fata de masina gazda precun si punerea la dispozitie a unor metode pentru lucrul cu fisere si directoare la nivelul sistemului de operare.

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Utilizarea claselor StringTokenizer si StreamTokenizer

Biblioteca Java.uitl defineste clasa StringTokenizer care faciliteaza separarea unui sir de caractere in simboluri. Pentru a separa un sir de caractere, trebuie sa cream un obiect StringTokenizer, specificand sirul si caracterul special, utilizat de sir pentru a indica(delimita componenetele). Constructorii acestei clase sunt:

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An Overview of Economics

Economics is one of the oldest and most influential of intellectual disciplines. Practically all of the great thinkers, from Aristotle to Einstein, have tried their hand at it, and the great economists like Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, John Maynard Keynes and Milton Friedman rank among the most influential minds in our history. The economic paradigm permeates our thinking about practically every area of human activity. Military analysts talk in terms of “assets” and “trade offs” while theologians quote economic statistics. Adam Smith’s ideas about competition had a strong influence on Charles Darwin’s study of biology. Insect colonies are said to “invest” in nest building. Our thinking about politics and social behavior draws heavily on ideas about incentives, trading, and maximization that come from economics.

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The Four Sectors of the Economy

Modern complex economies involve the interactions of large numbers of people and organizations. These economic agents fall into one of three categories: business, households, government, and the rest-of-the-world. Economists find it useful to think of these groupings as sectors of the economy. Let's look at each of these sectors in turn:

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The Market Economy

Economics is the study of the market economy.The market economy refers to an abstract image of interaction among purposeful, "normal human beings," or actors, under a given set of conditions. The set of conditions are four:

  • a system of private property rights,

  • specialization,

  • the use of money

  • free enterprise .

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Market Economies and Market Societies

One would be hard pressed these days to find any defenders of the sort of full-blown economic plannification characteristic of the late Soviet Union and other Communist states, and with good reason given their economic inefficiency.

The departure from plannification is, of course, celebrated by neo-liberal champions of capitalism. Critics of unbridled capitalism are less enthusiastic about the embrace of economic markets, which are correctly seen as promoting inequalities and objectionably competitive values.

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The Law of Supply and the Supply Curve

As you’ve learned, consumers demand products and services at the lowest possible prices. In contrast, suppliers like Microsoft exist to make a profit—hopefully, a big profit. As you read this section, you’ll learn about the law of supply and how it is geared toward making profits.

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Agile supply chain management

The Need for Agility

Having understood the impact and the undisputable success of the lean philosophy applied in many organisations world over. Can we come to a conclusion that the next milestone, after the craft production and mass production, is going to be the lean production? To answer this question, one needs to first establish whether the lean approach can fit to all business environments now and in the future. Researches and literatures so far appear to believe the otherwise.

The critical argument here is that the lean system was developed from a forecasting based volume production industrial sector where the market differentiator is reliability and cost, and today large part of our global market is variety dominated and the differentiator is speed and responsiveness. Hence, lean probably is not a cure-all approach after all.

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Relationship and Integration

Supply Relationship Defined

Supply relationship can be defined as the cross organisational interaction and exchange between the participating members of the supply chain. This means that the relationship is between organisations not individual people within the same supply chain where the material flows defines the boundary. However for the inter-organisational interaction that falls outside of the main streams of the material flows, then it may not be called collaborative relationship or partnership relation, but may not be the supply relationship. Supply relationship can be either on the upstream side with the suppliers or on the downstream side with the buyers. If the relationship is solely observed between one supply and one buyer, it is also called dyadic relationship.

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Strengths and weaknesses of the forecast

From using the forecasting method above it should have been possible to predict that the economy would stagnate, and with high likelihood enter a recession, about 1,5 years before the dated recession. Also I argued that forecasters using this method should have been able to predict that the future recession would with high likelihood be of great magnitude at least 6 months before December 2007. But with this said, this forecasting approach carries a number of more or less vital strengths and weaknesses. With this in mind the following discussion of quality is not exhaustive, but carries some of the most important points. The discussion will be much compared to a more econometric approach to forecasting which arguably carries the biggest differences from the approach described in this paper.

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Forecasting the 2007 recession

After the introduction to economic indicators in section 6, this section will look at the possibilities of predicting the recession starting in December 2007 using these indicators. Again it is important to remember that as this paper is written ex.post with revised data and a broad understanding of what went wrong1, it could easily be pointed at numerous of relatively detailed and complicated indications that something was fundamentally wrong with the US economy ahead of the recession. But instead this section will show how investors and corporation could have kept track of the business cycle and forecasted the 2007 recession using a broad, but still simple, analyzing approach towards the US economy. This means that many vital factors and details on why the US economy entered a recession will not be discussed.

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An assessment of relevant economic indicators

Because of the importance of understanding the status of the economy today to be able to predict the future, not all indicators need to be leading the economy. This means that not all indicators included in the approach will have strong predictive abilities. But as this is a forecasting approach, the assessment of the different indicators will always point towards their possible implications for the future.

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Macroeconomic forecasting through economic indicators

Even though the different business cycles can be described through relatively simple models such as the one explained in section (U.S. business cycles), the underlying reasons for the developments and the amplitude of the business cycles seems to be changing with each cycle. Wesley Clair Mitchell who was one of the early researchers of business cycles and leaders of NBER stated that; “since each business cycle in a sense is unique, a thoroughly adequate theory of business cycles, applicable to all cycles is unattainable” (Dua 2004, Page 1). This suggests the need to take a broad set of factors into consideration when analyzing the state of the economy and when trying to forecast the future developments of the macro economy.

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U.S. business cycles

The vast studies of business cycles are invaluable to the possibilities of understanding the state of the macro economy and to be able to predict the future movements of the economy. Many of the most famous economists in history, such as Keynes and Schumpeter have been researching this subject, but in this section I will mainly use the research by The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) as their research is widely accepted among economists in the U.S. today. This section will give an introduction to the different business cycle stages and how they are measured by NBER.

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Managing business cycle risks

The probability for corporate success varies together with the business cycle, and there is no doubt that the state of the macro economy influences the rate of investor and corporate success. This means that the potential risks of changes in business cycle growth rate is a potential threat to all market participants, which needs to be handled through risk management. This does not mean that it is possible to avoid business cycle risks altogether, but it simply means that these risks needs to be accounted for, and managed appropriately as part of a risk management scheme.

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Business cycle forecasting through economic indicators

After years of more or less continuous growth and relatively low macroeconomic volatility during the years named “The Great Moderation1, the US economy entered in December 20072 what seems to have been the deepest recession since The Great Depression3 The recession has been of relatively long duration and contained both a credit-crunch and a significant downturn in the housing market. This has in turn resulted in rising unemployment and a monthly bankruptcy rate which has increased by almost 67%4 between Q3 2007, which was the quarter before the business cycle peak, and Q4 2008.

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Supply Chain Management

What is supply chain management

What is supply chain management: basically this is group of independent organisations connected together through the products and services that they separately and/or jointly add value on in order to deliver them to the end consumer. It is very much an extended concept of an organisation which adds value to its products or services and delivers them to its customers. But what is the benefit of understanding the value adding from the supply chain perspective? Why managing supply chain is becoming necessary and important to today’s business success? These are some of the fundamental questions that must be first addressed before discussing the “how to” questions.

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Global Supply Chain Operations

To date, our world market is dominated mostly by many well established global brands. Over the last three decades, there have been a steady trend of global market convergence – the tendency that indigenous markets start converge on a set of similar products or services across the world. The end-result of the global market convergence is that companies have succeeded on their products or services now have the whole wide world to embrace for their marketing as well as sourcing.

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Supply Chain Design and Planning

One of the important issues in supply chain management is to design and plan out the overall architecture of the supply chain network and the value adding flows that go through it. This means that managers should step back and looks at the supply chain as a whole and formulates strategies and processes that maximise the total supply chain value-adding and minimises the total supply chain costs. The key contents of such architecture design and planning include configuration, extent of vertical integration, strategic outsourcing, location decisions, capacity planning, and dealing with bullwhip effect. There are also other aspects of the design and planning such as relationship posture which will be covered in a separated chapter.

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Lean Supply Chain Management

Origins of the Lean Manufacturing

Over the span of circa 40 years time, from the beginning of 1950s to the end of 1980s, Toyota led Japanese automotive industry created a unique production / manufacturing system, which brought the industry from the ruins of the 2nd World War to the biggest automobile exporter in the world. That system was known as the Toyota Production System (TPS), now more commonly known as lean manufacturing. The term ‘lean’ was first coined in a large scale research programme called IMVP (International Motor Vehicle Programme) initiated by MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

The primary concern of the programme was the unanticipated yet strong competitive advantages of Japanese automotive industry over that of American’s and European’s. The key findings of the programme have been published in many books and articles. One of them is a bestseller book entitled “The Machine that Changed the World”, in which the term ‘lean’ is defined as we know it today.

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Purchasing strategies and Supplier Selection

Strategic Role of Purchasing

Purchasing function has a strategically indispensible role to play in supply chain management. It covers the sourcing end of supply chain management interfacing with the delivery end of the suppliers.

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The Future Challenges supply chain management

What’s the future holds for supply chain management? The future of supply chain management is the future of the business management when there will be no business that is not part of a supply chain. The paradigm of business management will soon be converged to the paradigm of supply chain management. To precisely fortune-tell the future of supply chains is meaningless. But what’s useful is to identify and explore some challenges that we better prepare ourselves for. Three key challenges have been identified and discussed here.

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