Managementul previzional al resurselor umane

Ce este managementul previzionar al resurselor umane

În orice tip de organizaţie care există şi funcţionează în mediul economic actual, Managementul resurselor umane se articulează pe elementele oferite de managementul previzional. Managementul previzional al resurselor umane constă în conceperea, şi urmărirea politicilor şi planurilor de acţiune care vizează reducerea în mod anticipat a diferenţelor dintre nevoile de resurse umane ale organizaţiei şi disponibilităţile ei la un moment dat.

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Managementul resurselor umane

Ce este managementul resurselor umane

Managementul resurselor umane este procesul în urma căruia angajaţii obţin nivelul dorit de satisfacţie, iar organizaţiile cărora le aparţin îşi ating scopurile propuse, prin armonizarea a patru elemente:

Cultura organizationala

Conceptul de cultură organizaţională

Cultura organizaţională reprezintă un subiect al managementului, căruia în prezent i se acordă o mare atenţie. La nivel mondial interesul pentru cultura organizaţională s-a declanşat în deceniul al VII-lea al secolului XX. Cauza principală indirectă a reprezentat-o performanţele firmelor nipone explicate într-o măsură apreciabilă prin cultura lor specifică.

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Elasticitatea cererii şi ofertei

Analiza principalelor elemente ale mecanismului de funcţionare a pieţei se bazează pe cercetarea interacţiunii dintre cerere şi ofertă. Modificările înregistrate în cerere şi ofertă sub influenţa factorilor preţ şi non-preţ influenţează echilibrul pieţei. Prezintă interes nu doar direcţia modificărilor, dar şi mărimea sensibilităţii, intensităţii reacţiei consumatorului şi producătorului la aceste modificări. Scopul acestui capitol este de a determina măsura în care cererea şi oferta răspund la modificarea condiţiilor pieţei. Pentru a măsura oscilaţia cantităţii cerute ori a cantităţii oferite dintr-un bun la modificarea preţului acelui bun sau sub influenţa altor factori, se utilizează conceptul de elasticitate. Acest concept permite realizarea unor observaţii cantitative cu privire la efectele modificării cererii sau ofertei.

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Pastrarea si garantarea calitatii produselor alimentare

Pastrarea reprezinta actiunea de mentinere a calitatii unui produs obtinut cu sau fara procesare într-un anumit echilibru al interrelatiei cu agentii mediului înconjurator.Aceasta actiune presupune masuri organizatorice si tehnice care sa previna actiunile daunatoare si modificarile nedorite ale parametrilor calitativi ai produselor alimentare. Totodata prin astfel de masuri, pentru o parte dintre produsele alimentare se creeaza mediul necesar evolutiei favorabile a unor procese naturale care contribuie la îmbunatatirea însusirilor lor calitative sau la dobîndirea altora noi (ex: maturarea fainii, brînzei, vinului etc).

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Legume, fructe şi produse obţinute din prelucrarea acestora

Legume şi fructe proaspete

Legumele şi fructele sunt produse alimentare de origine vegetală. Datorită valorii nutritive, calităţilor gustative şi a gradului ridicat de asimilare de către organismul uman, ele sunt recomandate şi utilizate pe scară largă în alimentaţie, în stare proaspătă sau conservată.

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Piaţa muncii

Piaţa naţională a factorului muncă este de o importanţă deosebită, întrucât munca este factorul de producţie determinat. De nivelul cererii şi ofertei de muncă, precum şi de structura acestora depinde în mare măsură calitatea procesului productiv şi nivelul rezultatelor acestuia.

Factorii care influenţează evoluţia şi dezvoltarea pieţei muncii în general se grupează în două categorii, după cum este vorba de piaţa internă şi piaţa internaţională a forţei de muncă. Astfel, piaţa internă a forţei de muncă este condiţionată, în principal, de următorii factori:

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Activitatea si rolurile managerului in organizatie

Managerul este un individ sau un grup de indivizi care asigură desfăşurarea procesului de management indeplinind funcţii manageriale şi de execuţie.

Managerul diferă de leader prin poziţia şi autoritatea oficială de care dispune. Managerul prezintă cateva trăsături şi anume:

Cultura organizaţională

Conceptul şi componentele culturii organizaţionale.

Sunt o serie de definiţii privitor la conceptul de cultură organizaţonală. Potrivit lui N. Oliver CO constă într-un set de credinţe partajat de cea mai mare parte a personalului unei organizaţii, referitoare la cum oamenii ar trebui să se comporte în procesul muncii şi la cele mai importante scopuri şi sarcini de realizat. În opinia lui O.Nicolescu cultura organizaţonală desemnează sistemul de valori, simboluri, convingeri, aspiraţii, aşteptări, modalităţi de gândire şi comportamentul acceptat de membrii organizaţiei ca bază comună de acţiune.

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Cultura organizaţională a companiei

O teorie asupra culturii organizaţionale susţinută de Hall, Schein, Denison şi Hofstede se referă la faptul că, orice cultură creată de o anumită organizaţie îşi conservă şi îşi ascunde elementele fundamentale şi mecanismele de funcţionare într-o mai maremăsură decât şi le arată . Mai mult chiar, cultura organizaţională este ascunsă şi de proprii ei membrii. Astfel, cultura organizaţională oricărei companii este atât o cultură de suprafaţă (limbaj, reglementări legale, elemente materiale etc.), cât şi o cultură ascunsă (norme şi reguli unanim acceptate, credinţe şi prezumţii, modele de comportament etc.).

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Structura organizatorica a întreprinderii

Ca expresie a organizarii formale, structura organizatorica a unei întreprinderi se proiecteaza pe baza unor norme, reguli, principii si documente oficiale.

Structura întreprinderii , componenta a structurii generale a firmei, reflecta “anatomia întreprinderii”; modul de concepere, detaliere si implementare a acesteia influenteaza nemijlocit activitatile impuse de realizarea obiectivelor întreprinderii.

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Principiile nutritive - mineralele

mineralele

Mineralele

Deşi substanţele minerale din organism reprezintă numai 4 -5% din greutatea corporală, acestea sunt indispensabile pentru menţinerea stării de sănătate. În organism, substanţele minerale îndeplinesc importante funcţii biochimice şi fiziologice (2). Astfel, sunt implicate în menţinerea echilibrului acido-bazic, a presiunii osmotice şi a nivelului normal de hemoglobină; intră în compoziţia enzimelor şi hormonilor; cu rol în contracţia musculară, în funcţionalitatea sistemului nervos, în dezvoltarea şi menţinerea scheletului osos.

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Principiile nutritive - vitaminele

vitaminele

Vitaminele

Vitaminele sunt un grup compuşi organici strict necesari organismului uman şi care nu pot fi sintetizaţi de către acesta. De aceea vitaminele trebuie procurate prin alimentaţie. Nu prezintă materiale structurale precum proteinele, glucidele sau lipidele şi nu au valoare energetică, dar îndeplinesc importante funcţii biochimice.

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Alimentatia vegetariana

În Germania, saptamanal, 4.000 de persoane parasesc consumul de carne, trecand în tabara vegetarienilor.

Cand se pune problema alimentatiei exclusiv vegetariene, unii se tem ca acest mod de nutritie va diminua forta fizica si capacitatea de munca, în general, iar parintii se întreaba daca nu va influenta în mod negativ dezvoltarea copiilor.

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Principiile nutritive - glucidele

Glucidele si fibrele alimentare

Necesarul de glucide

Glucidele vor reprezenta 55-60-65% din valoarea calorică globală a dietei, adică aproximativ 4-7 g/kg/zi (300-500 g/zi), proporţional cu activitatea fizică depusă.

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Agile supply chain management

The Need for Agility

Having understood the impact and the undisputable success of the lean philosophy applied in many organisations world over. Can we come to a conclusion that the next milestone, after the craft production and mass production, is going to be the lean production? To answer this question, one needs to first establish whether the lean approach can fit to all business environments now and in the future. Researches and literatures so far appear to believe the otherwise.

The critical argument here is that the lean system was developed from a forecasting based volume production industrial sector where the market differentiator is reliability and cost, and today large part of our global market is variety dominated and the differentiator is speed and responsiveness. Hence, lean probably is not a cure-all approach after all.

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Order qualifiers and order winners

In section 2 we discussed what could look like very many confusing choices to make in finding suitable customer opportunities and framing an effective value proposition to provide the opportunity for customer satisfaction. We need to find a way to simplify these choices and in this section we do this by the use of the concepts of order qualifiers and order winners.

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What is Microeconomics

It is already apparent from this brief overview that the subject of economics is a very broad one. Just as the study of the physical world is divided into fields such as physics and chemistry, economics is likewise divided into fields comprised of closely related topics. The two major fields of economics are micro economics and macro economics. Since the second is the subject of this book, let's take a minute to review what microeconomics is about.

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The Four Sectors of the Economy

Modern complex economies involve the interactions of large numbers of people and organizations. These economic agents fall into one of three categories: business, households, government, and the rest-of-the-world. Economists find it useful to think of these groupings as sectors of the economy. Let's look at each of these sectors in turn:

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The Law of Supply and the Supply Curve

As you’ve learned, consumers demand products and services at the lowest possible prices. In contrast, suppliers like Microsoft exist to make a profit—hopefully, a big profit. As you read this section, you’ll learn about the law of supply and how it is geared toward making profits.

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Characteristics of the American Economy

In a market economy, producers often spend large amounts to make sure that consumers—even very young children—know the names and logos of their products. This is because free-market consumers have freedom of choice, and they will often choose brand names they recognize. In this section, you’ll learn more about freedom of choice and the other major charactistics of a market economic system.

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Consumer price index – september 2016

The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.3 percent in September on a seasonally adjusted basis, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the last 12 months, the all items index rose 1.5 percent before seasonal adjustment.

Increases in the shelter and gasoline indexes were the main causes of the rise in the all items index. The gasoline index rose 5.8 percent in September and accounted for more than half of the all items increase. The shelter index increased 0.4 percent, its largest increase since May.

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Inflation: Causes, Costs, and Current Status

Since the end of World War II, the United States has experienced almost continuous inflation— the general rise in the price of goods and services. It would be difficult to find a similar period in American history before that war. Indeed, prior to World War II, the United States often experienced long periods of deflation. It is worth noting that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in 1941 was virtually at the same level as in 1807.

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Economies of scale: the bigger the factory, the lower the cost

IN CONTEXT

FOCUS

Markets and firms

KEY THINKER

Alfred Marshall (1842–1924)

BEFORE

1776 Adam Smith explains how large firms can lower unit costs through labor division.

1848 John Stuart Mill suggests that only large firms can adapt successfully to certain business changes, and that this can lead to the creation of natural monopolies.

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Efficiency and fairness : make one person better off without hurting the others

IN CONTEXT:

FOCUS

Welfare economics

KEY THINKER

Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923)

BEFORE

1776 Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations relates self-interest to social welfare.

1871 British economist William Jevons says that value depends entirely on utility.

1874 French economist Léon Walras uses equations to determine the overall equilibrium of an economy.

AFTER

1930–50 John Hicks, Paul Samuelson, and others use Pareto optimality as the basis of modern welfare economics.

1954 US economist Kenneth Arrow and French economist Gérard Debreu use mathematics to show a connection between free markets and Pareto optimality.

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Opportunity cost the cost of going to the movies is the fun you’d have had at the ice rink

KEY THINKER

Friedrich von Wieser (1851–1926)

BEFORE

1817 David Ricardo argues that the value of a commodity is determined by the amount of labor hours used to produce it.

AFTER

1920 Alfred Marshall argues in Principles of Economics that both supply and demand have a role in determining price.

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The competitive market: companies are price takers not price makers 2

The assumptions of Marshall’s model create certain consequences for firms in perfectly competitive industries. One of the most important of these is that firms have no power over the price that they can charge. This is because there are so many firms selling an identical product that if any one firm attempts to sell at a price higher than its competitors, it will sell nothing. This is virtually guaranteed because the consumer has perfect knowledge about the prices being asked by all firms. In this way the market price is determined by the collective interaction of all the firms and consumers, and each firm has to accept that one particular price is the price at which they can sell the product. They have to “take” the price, not make it.

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The competitive market: companies are price takers not price makers

In the late 18th century Adam Smith wrote about the impact of competition on firms’ abilities to set prices and make profits above a “natural” level.

However, there was no formal analysis of the situation until British economist Alfred Marshall published Economic Principles in 1890. The ideas in Marshall’s model remain a key part of mainstream economic theory, although the theory has been criticized as not representing the true nature of competition.

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Economic equilibrium : a system of free markets is stable

There has long been something appealing for economists about the idea that the economy may behave with the same mathematical predictability of scientific laws such as Newton’s laws of motion. Newton’s laws reduce the whole complex, teeming, physical universe to three simple, reliable mathematical relationships. Is it possible to find similar relationships in the complex, changing world of markets?

In 1851, a British professor named Francis Edgeworth published Mathematical Psychics, an early mathematical work on economics. He realized that economics deals with relationships between variables, which means that it can be translated into equations. Edgeworth thought about economic benefits in utilitarian terms. In other words believing that outcomes could be measured in terms of units of happiness, or pleasure.

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Elasticity of demand: if you get a pay raise, buy caviar not bread

The “elasticity” of demand is its responsiveness to changes in another factor, such as price. British economist Alfred Marshall is generally credited as the first economist to define the concept in 1890, but the German statistician Ernst Engel published a paper five years earlier, showing how changes in income alter the level of demand. The origins of the concept may be disputed, but its importance is not.

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An Economy Producing Consumption Goods: Model I

Figure 2.1 depicts Model I. Here, we imagine an economy that produces only consumption goods. To keep Model I as simple as possible we further suppose that the only consumption good is cars. These cars are produced by firms which are staffed by the households and owned by the households. To put it in the language of economics, the two factors of production are labor and capital, and the households own both of them. There is no role for government or for the rest-of-the-world in Model I, so these sectors are omitted.

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Robinson Crusoe's National Income

We all have an understanding of the concept of income on an individual level and what our own income is. But how should we measure the income of a whole economy? What is the relation between our income and the value of what we produce? To find the nation’s income do we just add up the incomes of the household, business, and government sectors? And how does the rest-of-the-world enter the picture? What does the nation spend its income on, and what does it save? How does savings relate to investment?

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Business Cycle Theory

It has frequently been observed that interest in business or trade cycle theory is itself cyclical (e.g. Zarnowitz 1985, p.524). In periods of sustained prosperity interest wanes, as it did in the 1960s and early 1970s when research into macroeconomic dynamics concentrated on growth theory. At the end of the 1960s the continued existence of business cycles was questioned. The experiences of the 1970s and early 1980s, especially following the 1973 and 1979 oil price shocks, brought a resurgence of interest in business cycles. In this introductory section, the main themes in business cycle research in the 1980s will be reviewed. In section: Equilibrium Business Cycle (EBC) Modelling, the equilibrium approach to business cycle modelling, which has been dominant in the 1980s, will be discussed in more detail. In section: Nonlinear Cycle Theory, recent contributions by economists who do not accept that the business cycle can be adequately modelled using the linear Frisch-Slutsky approach, and that nonlinearities must be introduced, will be surveyed in order to update the survey of nonlinear business cycle models in Mullineux (1984,). This chapter does not seek to provide a comprehensive survey of the vast literature on business cycles. Zarnowitz (1985) has recently made a Herculean attempt at this.

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Elements of geoeconomics

The historical method has been largely discredited since the Second World War. Part of the reason is that people have been learning less history since then, so the phenomenon becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy, a downward spiral. The disciplines of history and geography have been systematically neglected, in the USA and indeed in the West more generally, right up to university level. If we knew more history, this would strengthen our ability to draw historical parallels, and thus to make more accurate predictions about future events. Instead it is often wrongly assumed that we know as much as there is to know about history. The field of economics suffers greatly as a consequence.

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Investing: Taking Risks With Your Savings

People keep their savings in banks and savings and loan associations because they want a safe rate of interest. If people are willing to take a chance on earning a higher rate of return, however, they can invest their savings in other ways. Stocks and bonds offer investors greater returns, but, at least for stocks, with more risk. As you read this section, you’ll learn hat stocks and bonds are, and why they carry a risk.

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