Alimentatia si sistemul imunitar

Din momentul nasterii, suntem expusi asaltului continuu al microbilor, al virusurilor si al altor agenti patogeni. Fara o aparare eficienta, foarte curand, viata ni s-ar încheia printr-o boala infectioasa sau tumorala. Din fericire, de obicei asa ceva nu se întampla, deoarece suntem înzestrati cu numeroase mecanisme de aparare, cunoscute sub denumirea de sistemul imunitar. Acest sistem detine o uimitoare adaptabilitate, fiind în stare sa produca un numar enorm de celule si de molecule, care îi pot recunoaste si distruge pe numerosii invadatori.

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Templu plutitor pentru placeri culinare

Dupa o saptamana de festivitati, în seara zilei de 8 septembrie 2001, locuitorii orasului Bremerhaven, Germania, si-au luat ramas-bun, în mijlocul unui spectaculos joc de artificii, de la noua nava pentru turisti, realizata în santierele navale Lloyd din localitate.

Vaporul a costat 650 de milioane de marci, putand gazdui, în conditiile cele mai luxoase, 1.936 de pasageri, plus echipajul de 968 de persoane.

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O dieta pentru toate timpurile

Într-una dintre poeziile sale, Ovidiu scrie despre „Epoca de aur”, cand se consumau fructe în loc de carne însangerata, cand pasarile strabateau spatiile fara teama, cand iepurii fricosi cutreierau campurile în siguranta, iar pestii n-aveau de ce sa se teama de carligele perfide ale unditelor. Caci totul era pasnic, iar pacea era adevarata.

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Sa învatam de la maimute

Frecventa mare a problemelor de sanatate legate de alimentatie, în special în tarile industriale, dovedeste ca populatia din aceste tari nu se hraneste într-un mod compatibil cu biologia ei. Epidemiologii observa ca, pe masura ce alimentatia devine de tip apusean, în aceeasi masura se înmultesc bolile specifice tarilor industriale. Din acest motiv, încearca cu disperare sa ne convinga de necesitatea ameliorarii obiceiurilor noastre alimentare. Pentru aceasta, se prezinta observatiile facute asupra populatiilor care se hranesc simplu, predominant vegetarian, în randurile carora bolile cardiovasculare, cancerul, diabetul si afectiunile degenerative sunt aproape necunoscute. În zonele rurale din China, colesterolemia medie este în jur de 120 mg/dl, multi avand o colesterolemie de 80-90 mg/dl, valori care nici nu pot fi crezute în Apus. În schimb, chinezii din Hong Kong, care au adoptat stilul de viata american, prezinta foarte des infarcte, diabet, obezitate si cancere si folosesc medicamente scumpe, pentru a scadea colesterolemia de 300 mg/dl sau si mai mult.

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Cine se alimenteaza mai sanatos?

Bucataria mediteraneana e caracterizata prin proportia mare de alimente de origine vegetala: fructe, legume si zarzavaturi si, cel putin pana de curand, de folosirea uleiului de masline, bogat în acizi grasi mononesaturati, care scad fractiunea LDL-C, „rea”, a colesterolului sanguin.

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Psihicul si alimentatia

Primejdia cea mai mare pentru sanatatea omenirii porneste de la un stil de viata nesanatos si, în primul rand, de la alimentatia nepotrivita. Cu toate ca, cel putin în societatea industrializata, exista o abundenta de alimente valoroase, chiar o supraabundenta, cu toate ca regulile de baza ale nutritiei sanatoase sunt mai cunoscute în prezent decat înainte, tulburarile de nutritie legate de alimentatie, mai ales obezitatea, hipertensiunea arteriala si diabetul, sunt în continua crestere.

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Factorul uman în diversificarea alimentatiei

Intrati în orice magazin de produse alimentare si nu veti putea evita simtamantul ca niciodata n-a existat o asemenea abundenta si varietate a produselor alimentare.

E o priveliste impresionanta, dar care induce în eroare. Desigur, e o abundenta nemaipomenita, caci lumea apuseana n-a fost niciodata atat de supraalimentata. Însa diversitatea nu este aceea pe care s-ar putea sa ne-o închipuim.

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Batranete fericita

În celebra catedrala anglicana din Londra, Westminster Abbey, se gasesc mormintele regilor si ale reginelor Angliei. Tot acolo si-au gasit ultima odihna renumiti poeti si savanti. Una din cripte însa contine resturile pamantesti ale unui om simplu, ale taranului Thomas Parr.

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De ce îmbatranim?

Chiar daca deseori suntem asemanati cu niste masini, exista totusi o mare diferenta: corpul nostru se repara si se reînnoieste mereu.

Spre deosebire de un automobil nou, care începe sa se uzeze din momentul în care paraseste vitrina unde a fost expus, la un nou-nascut sistemul imunitar, coordonarea, activitatea inimii si circulatia, judecata si înca multe altele se amelioreaza chiar, în loc sa se degradeze în decursul primului deceniu de viata.

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Prevenirea bolilor

Medicii excelenti previn boala; medicii mediocri o trateaza înainte de a deveni evidenta. Medicii slabi trateaza boala manifestata. ” Primul text medical chinezesc, anul 2600 î.Hr.

Winston Churchill, fostul prim-ministru al Angliei, s-a dus la medic pentru ca respira greu, avea ameteli si dureri articulare. Dupa ce l-a examinat, acesta din urma i-a spus: „Ar fi bine sa nu mai fumati toata ziua si sa nu goliti zilnic sticla de coniac”, la care premierul raspunse: „Daca as fi dispus sa fac aceasta, n-as mai avea nevoie de dumneata”.

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Sanatatea e legata de familie si de prieteni

În timp ce multi cred ca descarcarea agresiva si zgomotoasa constituie modalitatea sanatoasa de a scapa de suparare si de tensiunea nervoasa, statisticile arata ca barbatii care rabufnesc cu violenta, în mod regulat, fac de doua ori mai des accidente vasculare cerebrale, în comparatie cu cei care sunt în stare sa-si potoleasca mania, fara sa o exteriorizeze.

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Sanatatea cere respectarea unor legi

De pe varful muntelui, urnesc un bolovan care începe sa se rostogoleasca spre vale, din ce în ce mai repede. Nicicand un bolovan nu va urca de la sine spre varful muntelui. De ce? Din cauza gravitatiei, desigur. Gravitatia e o forta care exista în materie. Lucrurile se atrag cu o forta proportionala cu masa lor. Asa se face ca formidabila putere a pamantului atrage bolovanul catre centrul lui. Atat de constanta, de sigura, de previzibila si de absoluta este gravitatia, încat e una dintre „legile naturii”, asa cum a fost ea descrisa de Newton, un fapt care e deasupra oricarei pareri sau oricarui punct de vedere, sfidand orice controversa.

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Ce este sanatatea

În cartea sa Love, Medicine and Miracles (New York: Harper and Row Publishers,1986), dr. Bernie Siegel descrie experienta pe care a avut-o cu un medic internat în spital într-o stare fizica si psihica relativ buna. Cand i s-a comunicat diagnosticul de cancer pulmonar, medicul-pacient a devenit teribil de deprimat si de retras.

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Alimentatia si activitatea fizica, componente ale unui stil de viata sanatos

Obiectivele alimentatiei sanatoase

Copiii cu varste între 2 si 11 ani sunt vulnerabili la problemele de alimentatie deoarece sunt dependenti de adulti, de stilul lor de viata, dar si pentru ca au necesitati specifice fiecarei varste.

Acestea rezulta din faptul ca un copil are nevoie de mai multa energie pentru crestere si dezvoltare, alaturi de toate substantele nutritive din alimente (în special proteine, grasimi, vitamine si minerale).

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Evidente actuale privind alimentatia si activitatea fizica la copiii

Greutatea corporala crescuta (supraponderalitatea si obezitatea) constituie una dintre cele mai importante probleme de sanatate publica în randul copiilor si al tinerilor. Problemele asociate acesteia includ afectiunile cardiovasculare, diabetul zaharat, disfunctiile ortopedice, la care se adauga repercusiuni psihosociale, cum ar fi o stima de sine alterata, stigmatizare si depresie, cu consecinte asupra scaderii calitatii vietii.

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Consumer price index – september 2016

The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.3 percent in September on a seasonally adjusted basis, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the last 12 months, the all items index rose 1.5 percent before seasonal adjustment.

Increases in the shelter and gasoline indexes were the main causes of the rise in the all items index. The gasoline index rose 5.8 percent in September and accounted for more than half of the all items increase. The shelter index increased 0.4 percent, its largest increase since May.

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Inflation: Causes, Costs, and Current Status

Since the end of World War II, the United States has experienced almost continuous inflation— the general rise in the price of goods and services. It would be difficult to find a similar period in American history before that war. Indeed, prior to World War II, the United States often experienced long periods of deflation. It is worth noting that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in 1941 was virtually at the same level as in 1807.

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Economies of scale: the bigger the factory, the lower the cost

IN CONTEXT

FOCUS

Markets and firms

KEY THINKER

Alfred Marshall (1842–1924)

BEFORE

1776 Adam Smith explains how large firms can lower unit costs through labor division.

1848 John Stuart Mill suggests that only large firms can adapt successfully to certain business changes, and that this can lead to the creation of natural monopolies.

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Efficiency and fairness : make one person better off without hurting the others

IN CONTEXT:

FOCUS

Welfare economics

KEY THINKER

Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923)

BEFORE

1776 Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations relates self-interest to social welfare.

1871 British economist William Jevons says that value depends entirely on utility.

1874 French economist Léon Walras uses equations to determine the overall equilibrium of an economy.

AFTER

1930–50 John Hicks, Paul Samuelson, and others use Pareto optimality as the basis of modern welfare economics.

1954 US economist Kenneth Arrow and French economist Gérard Debreu use mathematics to show a connection between free markets and Pareto optimality.

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Opportunity cost the cost of going to the movies is the fun you’d have had at the ice rink

KEY THINKER

Friedrich von Wieser (1851–1926)

BEFORE

1817 David Ricardo argues that the value of a commodity is determined by the amount of labor hours used to produce it.

AFTER

1920 Alfred Marshall argues in Principles of Economics that both supply and demand have a role in determining price.

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The competitive market: companies are price takers not price makers 2

The assumptions of Marshall’s model create certain consequences for firms in perfectly competitive industries. One of the most important of these is that firms have no power over the price that they can charge. This is because there are so many firms selling an identical product that if any one firm attempts to sell at a price higher than its competitors, it will sell nothing. This is virtually guaranteed because the consumer has perfect knowledge about the prices being asked by all firms. In this way the market price is determined by the collective interaction of all the firms and consumers, and each firm has to accept that one particular price is the price at which they can sell the product. They have to “take” the price, not make it.

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The competitive market: companies are price takers not price makers

In the late 18th century Adam Smith wrote about the impact of competition on firms’ abilities to set prices and make profits above a “natural” level.

However, there was no formal analysis of the situation until British economist Alfred Marshall published Economic Principles in 1890. The ideas in Marshall’s model remain a key part of mainstream economic theory, although the theory has been criticized as not representing the true nature of competition.

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Economic equilibrium : a system of free markets is stable

There has long been something appealing for economists about the idea that the economy may behave with the same mathematical predictability of scientific laws such as Newton’s laws of motion. Newton’s laws reduce the whole complex, teeming, physical universe to three simple, reliable mathematical relationships. Is it possible to find similar relationships in the complex, changing world of markets?

In 1851, a British professor named Francis Edgeworth published Mathematical Psychics, an early mathematical work on economics. He realized that economics deals with relationships between variables, which means that it can be translated into equations. Edgeworth thought about economic benefits in utilitarian terms. In other words believing that outcomes could be measured in terms of units of happiness, or pleasure.

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Elasticity of demand: if you get a pay raise, buy caviar not bread

The “elasticity” of demand is its responsiveness to changes in another factor, such as price. British economist Alfred Marshall is generally credited as the first economist to define the concept in 1890, but the German statistician Ernst Engel published a paper five years earlier, showing how changes in income alter the level of demand. The origins of the concept may be disputed, but its importance is not.

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An Economy Producing Consumption Goods: Model I

Figure 2.1 depicts Model I. Here, we imagine an economy that produces only consumption goods. To keep Model I as simple as possible we further suppose that the only consumption good is cars. These cars are produced by firms which are staffed by the households and owned by the households. To put it in the language of economics, the two factors of production are labor and capital, and the households own both of them. There is no role for government or for the rest-of-the-world in Model I, so these sectors are omitted.

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Robinson Crusoe's National Income

We all have an understanding of the concept of income on an individual level and what our own income is. But how should we measure the income of a whole economy? What is the relation between our income and the value of what we produce? To find the nation’s income do we just add up the incomes of the household, business, and government sectors? And how does the rest-of-the-world enter the picture? What does the nation spend its income on, and what does it save? How does savings relate to investment?

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Business Cycle Theory

It has frequently been observed that interest in business or trade cycle theory is itself cyclical (e.g. Zarnowitz 1985, p.524). In periods of sustained prosperity interest wanes, as it did in the 1960s and early 1970s when research into macroeconomic dynamics concentrated on growth theory. At the end of the 1960s the continued existence of business cycles was questioned. The experiences of the 1970s and early 1980s, especially following the 1973 and 1979 oil price shocks, brought a resurgence of interest in business cycles. In this introductory section, the main themes in business cycle research in the 1980s will be reviewed. In section: Equilibrium Business Cycle (EBC) Modelling, the equilibrium approach to business cycle modelling, which has been dominant in the 1980s, will be discussed in more detail. In section: Nonlinear Cycle Theory, recent contributions by economists who do not accept that the business cycle can be adequately modelled using the linear Frisch-Slutsky approach, and that nonlinearities must be introduced, will be surveyed in order to update the survey of nonlinear business cycle models in Mullineux (1984,). This chapter does not seek to provide a comprehensive survey of the vast literature on business cycles. Zarnowitz (1985) has recently made a Herculean attempt at this.

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Elements of geoeconomics

The historical method has been largely discredited since the Second World War. Part of the reason is that people have been learning less history since then, so the phenomenon becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy, a downward spiral. The disciplines of history and geography have been systematically neglected, in the USA and indeed in the West more generally, right up to university level. If we knew more history, this would strengthen our ability to draw historical parallels, and thus to make more accurate predictions about future events. Instead it is often wrongly assumed that we know as much as there is to know about history. The field of economics suffers greatly as a consequence.

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Investing: Taking Risks With Your Savings

People keep their savings in banks and savings and loan associations because they want a safe rate of interest. If people are willing to take a chance on earning a higher rate of return, however, they can invest their savings in other ways. Stocks and bonds offer investors greater returns, but, at least for stocks, with more risk. As you read this section, you’ll learn hat stocks and bonds are, and why they carry a risk.

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Global Supply Chain Operations

To date, our world market is dominated mostly by many well established global brands. Over the last three decades, there have been a steady trend of global market convergence – the tendency that indigenous markets start converge on a set of similar products or services across the world. The end-result of the global market convergence is that companies have succeeded on their products or services now have the whole wide world to embrace for their marketing as well as sourcing.

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Definition and trends within Purchasing Management

The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with an introduction to Purchasing Management in order to fully appreciate the book. The chapter presents the book's definition of Purchasing Management as well as briefly presenting the potential benefits with working at a strategic level with purchasing activities for a corporation.

Furthermore trends and historical developments within the area of Purchasing Management will be presented.

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Purchasing Organization

The structure of the purchasing department is especially important in external and internal networks. The organizational model must facilitate activities in different strategic levels as well as cope with changes in external environment. By adjusting formalization and centralization levels, the organization can be positioned to best support the organization. However, no universal solution exists, as the right structure is highly company specific and dynamic over time. Therefore, this is one of the major challenges that Purchasing Management confronts within business networks.

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The Market Economy

Economics is the study of the market economy.The market economy refers to an abstract image of interaction among purposeful, "normal human beings," or actors, under a given set of conditions. The set of conditions are four:

  • a system of private property rights,

  • specialization,

  • the use of money

  • free enterprise .

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The Future Challenges supply chain management

What’s the future holds for supply chain management? The future of supply chain management is the future of the business management when there will be no business that is not part of a supply chain. The paradigm of business management will soon be converged to the paradigm of supply chain management. To precisely fortune-tell the future of supply chains is meaningless. But what’s useful is to identify and explore some challenges that we better prepare ourselves for. Three key challenges have been identified and discussed here.

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An Overview of Economics

Economics is one of the oldest and most influential of intellectual disciplines. Practically all of the great thinkers, from Aristotle to Einstein, have tried their hand at it, and the great economists like Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, John Maynard Keynes and Milton Friedman rank among the most influential minds in our history. The economic paradigm permeates our thinking about practically every area of human activity. Military analysts talk in terms of “assets” and “trade offs” while theologians quote economic statistics. Adam Smith’s ideas about competition had a strong influence on Charles Darwin’s study of biology. Insect colonies are said to “invest” in nest building. Our thinking about politics and social behavior draws heavily on ideas about incentives, trading, and maximization that come from economics.

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