ERP in Managementul lanţului de aprovizionare

In acest articol prezentam o extensie de ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) intitulata SCM (Supply Chain Management).

Managementul lantului de aprovizionare (Supply Chain Management, SCM)

O definitie generala a conceptului de lant de aprovizionare (supply chain) al unei întreprinderi include toti furnizorii, capacitatile de productie, centrele de distributie, depozitele si clientii, împreuna cu materiile prime, stocul de produse semifabricate si stocul de produse finite si cu toate resursele si informatiile implicate în satisfacerea cerintelor clientilor.

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Productie si Aprovizionare

Departamentul de productie și aprovizionare

Procesul de productie poate fi definit ca fiind totalitatea actiunilor constiente ale angajatilor unei întreprinderi, îndreptate asupra materiilor prime, cu ajutorul diferitelor masini, utilaje sau instalatii, materialelor sau a altor componente în scopul transformarii lor în produse, lucrari sau servicii cu anumita valoare de piata.

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Structura cheltuielilor publice din bugetul de stat

Notiunea de cheltuiala publica s-a conturat pe fundalul aparitiei si evolutiei consumului de resurse, în forma baneasca, pentru satisfacerea de nevoi publice, fiind utilizata cu mai multe acceptiuni, atât în teorie, cât si în pactica, dintre care, se invoca, cel mai adesea, sensul juridic si cel economic.

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Mixul de marketing în serviciile de consultanta

Orientarea de marketing a afacerii de consultanta

Consultanta este un serviciu profesional de consiliere prin care se ofera asistenta specializata, sfaturi, solutii si ajutor independent pentru rezolvarea problemelor si îmbunatatirea conducerii organizatiilor.

Comercializarea serviciilor profesionale de consultanta este necesara pentru obtinerea segmentului de piata pe care prestatorul îl merita din punct de vedere profesional si pentru a pune consultantul în legatura cu clientii care au nevoie de el si care nu cunosc oferta firmei de consultanta.

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Mixul de marketing si pachetul complex de produse si servicii

REZUMAT: De la aparitia sa si pana în prezent, marketingul a fost abordat sub diferite aspecte, de la teorii de piata la elemente constitutive, toate s-au axat pe cele patru elemente ale mixului de marketing: produs, pret, plasament si promovare, în jurul lor dezvoltandu-se politicile specifice, corelatiile dintre acestea, metodele si tehnicile de investigare, textele experimentale, studiile de motivatii.

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Înfiintarea si gestionarea unei firme, oportunitati si riscuri - analiza SWOT

Înfiintarea unei firme - cadrul legal

În Romania, persoana/grupul de persoane care doresc sa initieze o afacere poate/pot realiza aceasta conform reglementarilor legale privitoare la modul de înfiintare, înregistrare si la formele pe care le poate lua o societate comerciala, cuprinse în Legea 31/1990.

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Regulamentul prestarii serviciilor de transport si expeditie

Dispozitii generale

1. Prezentul Regulament este elaborat de catre Ministerul Transporturilor si Comunicatiilor în conformitate cu articolele 2 si 54 ale Codului transporturilor auto (Legea organica nr. 116-XIV din 29.07.98, M.O. nr.90-91, art.581) si stabileste modul deservirii de transport si expeditie în Republica Moldova.

2. Prestarile serviciilor de transport si expeditie - sînt deservirea de transport si expeditie ca activitate de productie, care consta în organizarea transportarii marfurilor, asigurarea expedierii si primirii lor, executarea sau organizarea executarii altor operatiuni aferente tuturor etapelor de transportare.

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Activitatea si rolurile managerului in organizatie

Managerul este un individ sau un grup de indivizi care asigură desfăşurarea procesului de management indeplinind funcţii manageriale şi de execuţie.

Managerul diferă de leader prin poziţia şi autoritatea oficială de care dispune. Managerul prezintă cateva trăsături şi anume:

Bilanţul contabil – procedeu de bază al contabilităţii

Noţiuni privind bilanţul şi importanţa lui

În scopul formării unei imagini complete, clare şi precise asupra activităţii economice desfăşurate de întreprindere, apare necesitatea întocmirii bilanţului contabil. Cu ajutorul bilanţului contabil se realizează principala trăsătură a metodei contabilităţii care este dubla reprezentare a averii. Bilanţul contabil reflectă în expresie valorică, la un moment dat, echilibrul dintre bunurile economice şi sursele de finanţare a acestora. Bilanţul se prezintă sub forma unui tabel, format din două părţi: partea stîngă, denumită activ, care reflectă bunurile economice şi partea dreaptă, denumită pasiv care reflectă sursele de finanţare a bunurilor economice reflectate în activ.

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Structura organizatorica a întreprinderii

Ca expresie a organizarii formale, structura organizatorica a unei întreprinderi se proiecteaza pe baza unor norme, reguli, principii si documente oficiale.

Structura întreprinderii , componenta a structurii generale a firmei, reflecta “anatomia întreprinderii”; modul de concepere, detaliere si implementare a acesteia influenteaza nemijlocit activitatile impuse de realizarea obiectivelor întreprinderii.

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Particularitatile transporturilor internationale

Transporturile internationale rutiere

Daca prin transporturi interne se înteleg trasporturile efectuate între localitati sau în interiorul localitatilor unei tari, prin transporturi internationale întelegem acele transporturi care traverseaza cel putin o frontiera de stat, punctele de expediere si de destinatie a marfii fiind situate în tari diferite.

Transportul rutier prezinta avantajul ca se realizeaza direct din poarta în poarta si cu o mare rapiditate. Efectuarea transportului direct permite o mai buna conservare a marfii si reducerea cheltuielilor cu ambalarea si manipularea intermediara.

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Transporturile de materii prime, materiale si marfuri

Alegerea modului de transport este o parte fundamentala a managementului distributiei si trebuie analizata cu atentie, datorita impactului sau asupra eficientei operationale a firmei. Esecul în identificarea celui mai potrivit mod de transport poate produce costuri mai mari decat cele necesare.

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Clasele DataInputStream si DataOutputStream

Aceste clase ofera metode prin care un flux nu mai este vazut ca o însiruire de octeti, ci ca o sursa de date primitive. Prin urmare vor furniza metode pentru citirea si scrierea datelor la nivel de tip de data si nu la nivel de octet. Constructorii si metodele cele mai importante sunt urmatoarele:

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Clasa File

Clasa File nu se refera doar la un fisier ci poate reprezenta fie un fisier anume, fie multimea fisierelor dintr-un director. O instanta a acestei clase poate sa reprezinte asadar:un fisier sau un director. Specificarea unui fisier/director se face prin introducerea caii absolute spre acel fisier sau a caii relative fata de directorul curent. Acestea trebuie sa respecte conventiile de specificare a cailor si numelor fisierelor de pe masina gazda. Utilitate clasei File consta în furnizarea unei modalitati de a abstractiza dependentele cailor si numelor fisierelor fata de masina gazda precun si punerea la dispozitie a unor metode pentru lucrul cu fisere si directoare la nivelul sistemului de operare.

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Utilizarea claselor StringTokenizer si StreamTokenizer

Biblioteca Java.uitl defineste clasa StringTokenizer care faciliteaza separarea unui sir de caractere in simboluri. Pentru a separa un sir de caractere, trebuie sa cream un obiect StringTokenizer, specificand sirul si caracterul special, utilizat de sir pentru a indica(delimita componenetele). Constructorii acestei clase sunt:

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An Economy Producing Consumption Goods: Model I

Figure 2.1 depicts Model I. Here, we imagine an economy that produces only consumption goods. To keep Model I as simple as possible we further suppose that the only consumption good is cars. These cars are produced by firms which are staffed by the households and owned by the households. To put it in the language of economics, the two factors of production are labor and capital, and the households own both of them. There is no role for government or for the rest-of-the-world in Model I, so these sectors are omitted.

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Robinson Crusoe's National Income

We all have an understanding of the concept of income on an individual level and what our own income is. But how should we measure the income of a whole economy? What is the relation between our income and the value of what we produce? To find the nation’s income do we just add up the incomes of the household, business, and government sectors? And how does the rest-of-the-world enter the picture? What does the nation spend its income on, and what does it save? How does savings relate to investment?

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Business Cycle Theory

It has frequently been observed that interest in business or trade cycle theory is itself cyclical (e.g. Zarnowitz 1985, p.524). In periods of sustained prosperity interest wanes, as it did in the 1960s and early 1970s when research into macroeconomic dynamics concentrated on growth theory. At the end of the 1960s the continued existence of business cycles was questioned. The experiences of the 1970s and early 1980s, especially following the 1973 and 1979 oil price shocks, brought a resurgence of interest in business cycles. In this introductory section, the main themes in business cycle research in the 1980s will be reviewed. In section: Equilibrium Business Cycle (EBC) Modelling, the equilibrium approach to business cycle modelling, which has been dominant in the 1980s, will be discussed in more detail. In section: Nonlinear Cycle Theory, recent contributions by economists who do not accept that the business cycle can be adequately modelled using the linear Frisch-Slutsky approach, and that nonlinearities must be introduced, will be surveyed in order to update the survey of nonlinear business cycle models in Mullineux (1984,). This chapter does not seek to provide a comprehensive survey of the vast literature on business cycles. Zarnowitz (1985) has recently made a Herculean attempt at this.

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Elements of geoeconomics

The historical method has been largely discredited since the Second World War. Part of the reason is that people have been learning less history since then, so the phenomenon becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy, a downward spiral. The disciplines of history and geography have been systematically neglected, in the USA and indeed in the West more generally, right up to university level. If we knew more history, this would strengthen our ability to draw historical parallels, and thus to make more accurate predictions about future events. Instead it is often wrongly assumed that we know as much as there is to know about history. The field of economics suffers greatly as a consequence.

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Investing: Taking Risks With Your Savings

People keep their savings in banks and savings and loan associations because they want a safe rate of interest. If people are willing to take a chance on earning a higher rate of return, however, they can invest their savings in other ways. Stocks and bonds offer investors greater returns, but, at least for stocks, with more risk. As you read this section, you’ll learn hat stocks and bonds are, and why they carry a risk.

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Global Supply Chain Operations

To date, our world market is dominated mostly by many well established global brands. Over the last three decades, there have been a steady trend of global market convergence – the tendency that indigenous markets start converge on a set of similar products or services across the world. The end-result of the global market convergence is that companies have succeeded on their products or services now have the whole wide world to embrace for their marketing as well as sourcing.

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Definition and trends within Purchasing Management

The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with an introduction to Purchasing Management in order to fully appreciate the book. The chapter presents the book's definition of Purchasing Management as well as briefly presenting the potential benefits with working at a strategic level with purchasing activities for a corporation.

Furthermore trends and historical developments within the area of Purchasing Management will be presented.

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Purchasing Organization

The structure of the purchasing department is especially important in external and internal networks. The organizational model must facilitate activities in different strategic levels as well as cope with changes in external environment. By adjusting formalization and centralization levels, the organization can be positioned to best support the organization. However, no universal solution exists, as the right structure is highly company specific and dynamic over time. Therefore, this is one of the major challenges that Purchasing Management confronts within business networks.

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The Market Economy

Economics is the study of the market economy.The market economy refers to an abstract image of interaction among purposeful, "normal human beings," or actors, under a given set of conditions. The set of conditions are four:

  • a system of private property rights,

  • specialization,

  • the use of money

  • free enterprise .

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The Future Challenges supply chain management

What’s the future holds for supply chain management? The future of supply chain management is the future of the business management when there will be no business that is not part of a supply chain. The paradigm of business management will soon be converged to the paradigm of supply chain management. To precisely fortune-tell the future of supply chains is meaningless. But what’s useful is to identify and explore some challenges that we better prepare ourselves for. Three key challenges have been identified and discussed here.

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An Overview of Economics

Economics is one of the oldest and most influential of intellectual disciplines. Practically all of the great thinkers, from Aristotle to Einstein, have tried their hand at it, and the great economists like Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, John Maynard Keynes and Milton Friedman rank among the most influential minds in our history. The economic paradigm permeates our thinking about practically every area of human activity. Military analysts talk in terms of “assets” and “trade offs” while theologians quote economic statistics. Adam Smith’s ideas about competition had a strong influence on Charles Darwin’s study of biology. Insect colonies are said to “invest” in nest building. Our thinking about politics and social behavior draws heavily on ideas about incentives, trading, and maximization that come from economics.

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The Four Sectors of the Economy

Modern complex economies involve the interactions of large numbers of people and organizations. These economic agents fall into one of three categories: business, households, government, and the rest-of-the-world. Economists find it useful to think of these groupings as sectors of the economy. Let's look at each of these sectors in turn:

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What is Microeconomics

It is already apparent from this brief overview that the subject of economics is a very broad one. Just as the study of the physical world is divided into fields such as physics and chemistry, economics is likewise divided into fields comprised of closely related topics. The two major fields of economics are micro economics and macro economics. Since the second is the subject of this book, let's take a minute to review what microeconomics is about.

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What is Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics focuses on trying to understand events that affect the whole economy. In the fall of 2000 and continuing through the fall of 2001 there was the U.S. experienced a decline in sales, production, and employment that affected most firms and industries. A few industries, notably housing construction, continued to do well. This kind of widespread decline in economic activity, when it lasts for more than six months, is called a recession.

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The Anatomy of a Bond

We have already mentioned bonds, and that they are marketable securities that are purchased by financial intermediaries like mutual funds and pension funds as well as by individuals. We are all aware of U.S. Government bonds, but we also know that you cannot buy stock in Uncle Sam! Clearly, bonds must be different from stocks, though both are investments. Now let’s be specific about what a bond is and how the bond market works.

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Wall Street

When you mention the word "investment" most people think of Wall Street and the stock market, not capital investment in new plant and equipment by firms. These are two distinct uses of the same word. When someone buys 100 shares of Nike Corporation they are making a financial investment. When Nike Corp. builds a new factory or warehouse, it is making a capital investment. We need to be careful not to confuse financial investment by savers with capital investment by firms, although the two kinds of investment are closely related. Both of these “investments” are part of the process of turning household savings into the production and purchase of new capital goods. Both involve taking a risk now in the hopes of earning a larger return later. To develop the concepts of financial investment, let's continue our example of Blue Skies' purchase of a new Boeing 777.

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The Role of Financial Intermediaries

Imagine that you are the president of Blue Skies Airlines, Inc. and you have decided that Blue Skies should buy a new Boeing 777. The plane will cost $125 million and change. There is one small problem though. Blue Skies only has a few million dollars in its bank account, and those funds are needed to pay fuel bills and the salaries of its employees. How can Blue Skies get enough money to buy this new airplane? It can by tapping into the savings flows of the economy, and this chapter explains how that actually happens.

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Market Economies and Market Societies

One would be hard pressed these days to find any defenders of the sort of full-blown economic plannification characteristic of the late Soviet Union and other Communist states, and with good reason given their economic inefficiency.

The departure from plannification is, of course, celebrated by neo-liberal champions of capitalism. Critics of unbridled capitalism are less enthusiastic about the embrace of economic markets, which are correctly seen as promoting inequalities and objectionably competitive values.

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The Law of Supply and the Supply Curve

As you’ve learned, consumers demand products and services at the lowest possible prices. In contrast, suppliers like Microsoft exist to make a profit—hopefully, a big profit. As you read this section, you’ll learn about the law of supply and how it is geared toward making profits.

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Agile supply chain management

The Need for Agility

Having understood the impact and the undisputable success of the lean philosophy applied in many organisations world over. Can we come to a conclusion that the next milestone, after the craft production and mass production, is going to be the lean production? To answer this question, one needs to first establish whether the lean approach can fit to all business environments now and in the future. Researches and literatures so far appear to believe the otherwise.

The critical argument here is that the lean system was developed from a forecasting based volume production industrial sector where the market differentiator is reliability and cost, and today large part of our global market is variety dominated and the differentiator is speed and responsiveness. Hence, lean probably is not a cure-all approach after all.

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