Analiza ramurii economice

Pentru ca o firma sa creasca si sa îsi depaseasca rivalii este obligatoriu ca cei care o conduc:

  • 1) sa cunosca regulile jocului din ramura în care evolueaza,
  • 2) sa aleaga firmele pe care urmeaza sa le atace si
  • 3) sa prevada reactiile celor atacati.
Read more ...

Conceptul de logistică

Astăzi auzim tot mai des vorbindu-se despre rolul deosebit al specialistului in logistică în asigurarea competitivităţii organizaţiei. De fapt, auzim tot mai des cuvântul „logistică”. Acest termen a fost utilizat iniţial pentru domeniul militar (referitor la mişcarea şi aprovizionarea armatelor), ulterior fiind extins şi în activitatea economică şi în alte domenii.

Read more ...

Conceptul de marketing direct

Definirea marketingului direct

În ultimele decenii, la nivel mondial, marketingul direct a cunoscut o dezvoltare considerabila, depasind cu mult limitele începuturilor sale, adica comertul traditional prin posta, apeland acum la o multitudine de noi tehnologii si de tehnici de construire a relatiei cu clientul precum si la evaluarea performantelor de marketing.

Astfel, asistam în prezent la o renastere a comertului traditional prin posta sub forma comertului electronic prin Internet, ai carui comercianti electronici utilizeaza tehnici de marketing si instrumente promotionale care au fost verificate si folosite timp de multe zeci de ani. Aceste instrumente si tehnici au fost adaptate si s-au dovedit mult mai viabile decat formele initiale de marketing direct.

Read more ...

Politica de pret

Preţul reprezintă cea mai mobilă componentă a mixului de marketing. El poate fi modificat rapid, spre deosebire de celelalte componente ale mixului de marketing, iar schimbările de preţ atrag de  regulă un răspuns imediat din partea pieţei. În acelaşi timp preţul este şi componenta mixului de marketing mai puţin controlabilă de către întreprindere.

Aceste două caracteristici, care reprezintă pentru această politică principalul avantaj şi dezavantaj, fac din această componentă a mixului de marketing o „piatră de încercare” a oricărei conduceri a întreprinderii.

Read more ...

Mixul de marketing si pachetul complex de produse si servicii

REZUMAT: De la aparitia sa si pana în prezent, marketingul a fost abordat sub diferite aspecte, de la teorii de piata la elemente constitutive, toate s-au axat pe cele patru elemente ale mixului de marketing: produs, pret, plasament si promovare, în jurul lor dezvoltandu-se politicile specifice, corelatiile dintre acestea, metodele si tehnicile de investigare, textele experimentale, studiile de motivatii.

Read more ...

Mixul de marketing în servicii

Dezvoltarea strategiei de marketing în servicii presupune:

  • selectarea pietei (pietelor) tinta pe care va opera firma,
  • dezvoltarea mixului de marketing pentru fiecare tinta selectata.
Read more ...

Mixul de marketing în serviciile de consultanta

Orientarea de marketing a afacerii de consultanta

Consultanta este un serviciu profesional de consiliere prin care se ofera asistenta specializata, sfaturi, solutii si ajutor independent pentru rezolvarea problemelor si îmbunatatirea conducerii organizatiilor.

Comercializarea serviciilor profesionale de consultanta este necesara pentru obtinerea segmentului de piata pe care prestatorul îl merita din punct de vedere profesional si pentru a pune consultantul în legatura cu clientii care au nevoie de el si care nu cunosc oferta firmei de consultanta.

Read more ...

Mixul de marketing

Dezvoltarea conceptului de "mixul de marketing" poate fi considerată una dintre ideile dominante în practica şi teoria marketingului modern.

Din punct de vedere conceptual, termenul de "mixul de marketing" a fost dezvoltat la bază de către profesorul Neil H. Borden pentru a descrie combinaţia potrivită, pentru un set particular de circumstanţe, a 4 elemente cheie, care constituie partea principală a oricărui program de marketing dintr-o firmă (Wilmshurst şi Mackay, 2002).

Read more ...

Structuri organizaţionale - Grupuri

Grupul este definit ca fiind două sau mai multe persoane interdependente care conlucrează pentru a atinge anumite scopuri. Grupurile formale sunt grupuri de lucru formate de către organizaţie, care au sarcini stabilite.

Grupurile informalesunt formaţii naturale care apar în mediul de lucru ca răspuns la nevoia de contact social. Aceste grupuri tind să se formeze pe prietenii şi interese comune.

Read more ...

Structuri organizaţionale

Scopul principal al realizării structurii organizaţionale este de a crea o schemă de lucru logică prin care organizaţia să-şi atingă scopurile. Activitatea de realizare a structurii organizaţionale implică următoarele etape:

 Descrierea posturilor  realizarea fiselor posturilor

Read more ...

Politica de pret in domeniul servicii

Politica de pret a firmei de servicii este determinata de caracteristicile acestora. Dintre acestea:

  • intangibilitatea serviciilor confera pretului o pozitie determinanta în aprecierea serviciului în faza de pre-cumparare. 
  • sezonalitatea serviciilor influenteaza marimea, dinamica, modul de formare a pretului în anumite perioade ale anului. 
  • Elementele componente ale pretului au ponderi diferite fata de domeniul bunurilor.
  • Implicarea consumatorului în prestatie are reflectare în politica de pret.

 

Read more ...

Cultura organizationala

Conceptul de cultură organizaţională

Cultura organizaţională reprezintă un subiect al managementului, căruia în prezent i se acordă o mare atenţie. La nivel mondial interesul pentru cultura organizaţională s-a declanşat în deceniul al VII-lea al secolului XX. Cauza principală indirectă a reprezentat-o performanţele firmelor nipone explicate într-o măsură apreciabilă prin cultura lor specifică.

Read more ...

Inflaţia

Inflaţia. Caracterizare

Fenomenul denumit inflaţie constituie o problemă complexă de analiză macroeconomică şi una dintre cele mai importante forme ale dezechilibrului economico-social. Termenul de inflaţie a început să fie frecvent utilizat în rândul oamenilor de ştiinţă şi al oamenilor de afaceri (bancheri), abia pe la sfârşitul secolului al XIX-lea, deşi fenomenul inflaţionist exista cu mult înainte de această perioadă. Acest fenomen a apărut cu mult înainte ca ştiinţa economică să se fi constituit, iar teoria inflaţiei s-a conturat mult mai târziu decât ştiinţa economică, astfel că inflaţia rămâne cea mai de temută şi controversată formă a dezechilibrului macroeconomic, din punct de vedere al analizei naturii sale şi a cauzelor şi mecanismelor declanşatoare.

Read more ...

Piaţa monetară

Banii şi sistemele monetare

Economia de schimb nu poate evolua fără existenţa unor mijlocitori ai schimbului, bunuri de referinţă, în raport de care să se stabilească valoarea celorlalte bunuri şi servicii.

Banul este definit ca orice bun care mijloceşte schimbul de bunuri şi servicii. Astfel că bani au constituit foarte multe bunuri de-a lungul dezvoltării umane, cum ar fi: scoicile, pieile, cerealele, pietrele, metalele, hârtia, plasticul.

Read more ...

Patrimoniul societăţilor comerciale

esursele financiare sunt o componentă a patrimoniului societăţilor comerciale. Acesta reprezintă totalitatea drepturilor şi obligaţiilor ce pot fi exprimate în bani, aparţinînd unei persoane fizice şi juridice, ale cărei nevoi sunt destinate să le satisfacă, precum şi bunurile la care se referă.

Patrimoniul este evidenţiat în bilanţul contabil al societăţii comerciale sub formă de mijloace economice (stocuri de valori) în activ şi surse de constituire a lor în pasiv.

Read more ...

Supply Chain Design and Planning

One of the important issues in supply chain management is to design and plan out the overall architecture of the supply chain network and the value adding flows that go through it. This means that managers should step back and looks at the supply chain as a whole and formulates strategies and processes that maximise the total supply chain value-adding and minimises the total supply chain costs.

Read more ...

International Practice of Transport Insurance

Motor-vehicle insurance

Motor-vehicle insurance is one of the kinds of transport insurance whose objects are mechanised and other means of transport. This kind of insurance is voluntary.

Read more ...

The Insurance of Responsibility on the International Level

The insurance of the civil responsibility of car-owners.

Insuring the civil responsibility of car-owners, underwriter undertakes to compensate damages to third persons that resulted from the insurer’s maintenance of the automobile. On the territory of RM this kind of insurance is obligatory.

Read more ...

Economic and Political Risks Insurance

Commercial risks insurance.

Entrepreneur activities and insurance are two closely interconnected categories of the market economy.

The main aim of entrepreneur activities is getting profit, increasing capital invested into business. That is why insurance against possible loss of expected profit or unearned profit becomes very important.

Read more ...

Personal Insurance

Life insurance

The distinguishing feature of this insurance is its double function: risk and accumulative one. Life insurance contract can be concluded in favour of a physical person from his birth (but at the moment of concluding the contract his or her age should not exceed 70 years old). Insurance contract can’t be concluded in favour of disable persons, if they are more than 49% disable (I and II group invalids).

Read more ...

Reinsurance

The essence and the meaning of reinsurance.

Reinsurance is a system of economic relations in the process of which the underwriter, undertaking insurance against risks, passes part of their liability on (taking into account his financial possibilities) to other underwriters under agreed conditions in order to create a portfolio of insurance contracts, to provide financial stability and profitability of insurance activities.

Read more ...

The marketing plan


Improving your competitive edge

A Marketing Plan is a written strategy for selling the products/services of a new business. It is a reflection of how serious a company is in meeting the competition head on, with strategies and plans to increase market share and attract customers. An effective Marketing Plan is backed by carefully collected market, consumer and competitor information, sometimes citing professional advice.

Read more ...

The Law of Supply and the Supply Curve

As you’ve learned, consumers demand products and services at the lowest possible prices. In contrast, suppliers like Microsoft exist to make a profit—hopefully, a big profit. As you read this section, you’ll learn about the law of supply and how it is geared toward making profits.

Read more ...

Economic Systems

The economy of India is expanding, thanks in large part to growth in industries like call centers and software development. The economies of many other nations are changing as well, while others, like that of the United States, have remained relatively stable for many years. In this section, you’ll learn that each nation’s economy depends on how that nation chooses to use its resources to satisfy people’s wants and needs.

Read more ...

Characteristics of the American Economy

In a market economy, producers often spend large amounts to make sure that consumers—even very young children—know the names and logos of their products. This is because free-market consumers have freedom of choice, and they will often choose brand names they recognize. In this section, you’ll learn more about freedom of choice and the other major charactistics of a market economic system.

Read more ...

What Is Economics

The BIG Idea

Scarcity is the basic economic problem that requires people to make choices about how to use limited resources.

Why It Matters ?

Have you ever wanted to buy something or to participate in an activity, but you couldn’t because you didn’t have enough income or time? How do scarce resources like time and income affect you and everyone around you? In this chapter, read to learn about what economics is and how it is part of your daily life.

Read more ...

Keynesian cross model

The Keynesian model

In this chapter we will look at the Keynesian cross model. This model is a simple version of what we call the ”complete Keynesian model” or simply the Keynesian model. The Keynesian model has as its origin the writings of John Maynard Keynes in the 1930s, particularly the book ”The general theory of Employment, Interest, and Money”. Although this book was written as a criticism of the classical model, the similarities between the Keynesian model and the classical model are definitely greater than the differences. Lets point out the three most important differences directly:

Read more ...

The complete Keynesian model

Wage inflation

In this chapter, we will continue to develop the Keynesian model removing the assumption of fixed nominal wages. We define wage inflation πw as the percentage average increase in wages. Wages and wage inflation are still exogenous, i.e. they are not determined within the model. One justification for this assumption is that wages often are determined by agreements which often last for several years.

Read more ...

Agile supply chain management

The Need for Agility

Having understood the impact and the undisputable success of the lean philosophy applied in many organisations world over. Can we come to a conclusion that the next milestone, after the craft production and mass production, is going to be the lean production? To answer this question, one needs to first establish whether the lean approach can fit to all business environments now and in the future. Researches and literatures so far appear to believe the otherwise.

The critical argument here is that the lean system was developed from a forecasting based volume production industrial sector where the market differentiator is reliability and cost, and today large part of our global market is variety dominated and the differentiator is speed and responsiveness. Hence, lean probably is not a cure-all approach after all.

Read more ...

What is Microeconomics

It is already apparent from this brief overview that the subject of economics is a very broad one. Just as the study of the physical world is divided into fields such as physics and chemistry, economics is likewise divided into fields comprised of closely related topics. The two major fields of economics are micro economics and macro economics. Since the second is the subject of this book, let's take a minute to review what microeconomics is about.

Read more ...

Order qualifiers and order winners

In section 2 we discussed what could look like very many confusing choices to make in finding suitable customer opportunities and framing an effective value proposition to provide the opportunity for customer satisfaction. We need to find a way to simplify these choices and in this section we do this by the use of the concepts of order qualifiers and order winners.

Read more ...

The AD-AS model

The problem with the IS-LM model

The starting point of the AD-AS model is an assumption in the IS-LM model (and in the cross model) that limits its usefulness. This is the assumption that if firms where to choose the profit maximizing quantity of L (LOPT), they would produce more than the aggregate demand. In the IS-LM, YOPT > YD must hold as discussed in section Aggregate supply. To realize why this is a problem in the IS-LM model, we gradually increase the aggregate demand byincreasing G. We can illustrate the process using figure 12.6 in Section The Labor Market

Read more ...

The Four Sectors of the Economy

Modern complex economies involve the interactions of large numbers of people and organizations. These economic agents fall into one of three categories: business, households, government, and the rest-of-the-world. Economists find it useful to think of these groupings as sectors of the economy. Let's look at each of these sectors in turn:

Read more ...

Consumer price index – september 2016

The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.3 percent in September on a seasonally adjusted basis, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the last 12 months, the all items index rose 1.5 percent before seasonal adjustment.

Increases in the shelter and gasoline indexes were the main causes of the rise in the all items index. The gasoline index rose 5.8 percent in September and accounted for more than half of the all items increase. The shelter index increased 0.4 percent, its largest increase since May.

Read more ...

Inflation: Causes, Costs, and Current Status

Since the end of World War II, the United States has experienced almost continuous inflation— the general rise in the price of goods and services. It would be difficult to find a similar period in American history before that war. Indeed, prior to World War II, the United States often experienced long periods of deflation. It is worth noting that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in 1941 was virtually at the same level as in 1807.

Read more ...
Back to Top