Drept civil

Definiţia şi obiectul dreptului civil

Dreptul civil este acea ramură de drept privat care reglementează raporturile juridice patrimoniale şi nepatrimoniale dintre subiecte de drept - persoane fizice şi juridice - aflate pe poziţii de egalitate juridică. Analiza definiţiei date conduce la următoarele concluzii descrise mai jos.

Dreptul civil aparţine diviziunii dreptului privat, deoarece reglementează, în principiu, raporturi dintre particulari. Mai mult decât atât, el nu constituie doar una dintre ramurile acestei diviziuni a dreptului, ci are un statut privilegiat: dreptul civil este drept comun pentru celelalte ramuri de drept privat. Aceasta înseamnă că ori de câte ori o anumită situaţie juridică nu este reglementată în nici un fel în ramura specială de drept, soluţia va fi aplicarea normelor de drept civil.

Read more ...

Reacţia vitală

Prin reacţia vitala se înţelege totalitatea modificărilor locale ale ţesuturilor, organelor, si/sau generale ale întregului corp ce apar in organismul viu ca răspuns la acţiunea unui agent traumatic, mecanic, fizic, chimic, biologic.

Read more ...

Filosofia social - istorică marxistă

Filosofia marxistă pune în centrul vieţii sociale activitatea economică. Astfel, diferenţa între diversele societăţi şi tipuri de societăţi e dată de diferitele moduri în care oamenii produc bunurile, iar evoluţia societăţii este determinată de schimbările în modul de producţie.

Modul de producţie este analizat prin două componente: forţele de producţie şi relaţiile de producţie. Forţele de producţie săvârşesc actul productiv şi se compun din forţa de muncă şi din mijloacele de producţie. Relaţiile de producţie reprezintă relaţiile ce se stabilesc în procesul de producţie.

Read more ...

Înlocuitorii de zahar

Multi considera ca înlocuitorii de zahar constituie o alternativa buna, care sa se foloseasca pentru orice, începand cu bauturile si terminand cu prajiturile si bomboanele, deoarece nu contin calorii, deci nu îngrasa. Lumea consuma aceste articole, crezand ca sunt eficace, deoarece sunt sarace în calorii. Studii recente arata contrariul. Persoanele care consuma cel mai mult asa-zisele bauturi dietetice au cele mai multe probleme cu greutatea.

Read more ...

Fluxurile pentru lucrul cu fisiere

Fluxurile pentru lucrul cu fisiere sunt cele mai usor de înteles. Clasele care implementeaza aceste fluxuri sunt urmatoarele:

  • FileReader, FileWriter - caractere
  • FileInputStream, FileOutputStream – octeti
Read more ...

Java Exceptii

Pentru tratarea erorilor remediabile Java foloseste Exceptiile.

Exemple de Exceptii pot fi :

  • ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
  • EOFException
  • FileNotFoundException
  • InterruptedException, etc
Read more ...

Transmiterea argumentelor

O aplicate Java poate primi oricate argumente de la linia de comanda in momentul lansarii ei. Aceste argumente sunt utile pentru a permite utilizatorului sa specifice diverse optiuni legate de functonarea aplicatiei sau sa furnizeze anumite date initale programului.

Read more ...

Clasa File

Clasa File nu se refera doar la un fisier ci poate reprezenta fie un fisier anume, fie multimea fisierelor dintr-un director. O instanta a acestei clase poate sa reprezinte asadar:un fisier sau un director. Specificarea unui fisier/director se face prin introducerea caii absolute spre acel fisier sau a caii relative fata de directorul curent. Acestea trebuie sa respecte conventiile de specificare a cailor si numelor fisierelor de pe masina gazda.

Utilitate clasei File consta în furnizarea unei modalitati de a abstractiza dependentele cailor si numelor fisierelor fata de masina gazda precun si punerea la dispozitie a unor metode pentru lucrul cu fisere si directoare la nivelul sistemului de operare.

Read more ...

Variabile

Declaratii de variabile

O variabila în limbajul Java este o locatie de memorie care poate pastra o valoare de un anumit tip. În ciuda denumirii, exista variabile care îşi pot modifica valoarea şi variabile care nu şi-o pot modifica, numite în Java variabile finale. Orice variabila trebuie sa fie declarata pentru a putea fi folosita. Aceasta declaratie trebuie sa contina un tip de valori care pot fi memorate în locatia rezervata variabilei şi un nume pentru variabila declarata. În functie de locul în sursa programului în care a fost declarata variabila, aceasta primeşte o clasa de memorare locala sau statica. Aceasta clasa de memorare defineşte intervalul de existenta al variabilei în timpul executiei.

Read more ...

Clasele DataInputStream si DataOutputStream

Aceste clase ofera metode prin care un flux nu mai este vazut ca o însiruire de octeti, ci ca o sursa de date primitive. Prin urmare vor furniza metode pentru citirea si scrierea datelor la nivel de tip de data si nu la nivel de octet. Constructorii si metodele cele mai importante sunt urmatoarele:

Read more ...

Instrumente ale pieţei de capital

Totalitatea instrumentelor unei pieţe de capital formează categoria produselor bursiere. Din această categorie fac parte şi valorile mobiliare. Acestea reprezintă instrumente negociabile materializate sau înscrise în cont, care oferă deţinătorilor anumite drepturi asupra emitentului. Drepturile care izvorăsc din deţinerea de acţiuni sunt stabilite prin contractul de emisiune al acestora.

Read more ...

Fire de executie Java

  • permit executarea simultana a mai multor parti din program
  • constituie o versiune redusa a unui proces
  • asemanari : ruleaza independent sisimultan
  • deosebiri : la crearea unui nou proces (fork) este realizata o copie exacta a procesului parinte : cod + date; la crearea unui fir de executie nu este copiat decat codul procesului parinte; toate firele de executie au deci acces la aceleasidate, datele procesului original
  • utilitate : executarea unor operatii în fundal
Read more ...

Prezentarea interfetei Java API

API = Application Pogramming Interface - interfata de programare a aplicatiilor. Pachetele API contin clase si interfete pentru construirea aplicatiilor si miniaplicatiilor.

Structura pacchetelor API

Read more ...

Vectori

Crearea unui vector

Crearea unui vector presupune realizarea urmatoarelor etape:

Declararea vectorului - Pentru a putea utiliza un vector trebuie, înainte de toate, sa-l declaram. Acest lucru se face prin expresii de forma:

Read more ...

Particularităţile contabilităţii circulaţiei mărfurilor în regim de consignaţie

Circulaţia mărfurilor prin unităţile (secţiile) de consignaţie, specializate pentru această formă de comerţ, comparativ cu circulaţia obişnuită a mărfurilor cu amănuntul, prezintă anumite particularităţi care influenţează organizarea contabilităţii dintre care se amintesc cele mai semnificative:

Read more ...

Evidenţa mijloacelor băneşti în conturile curente în valută străină

În afară de conturi curente în valută naţională şi în valută străină întreprinderile mai pot deţine mijloace băneşti în conturi speciale precum cele de acreditiv şi carduri bancare.

Acreditivul este un angajament prin care o bancă (banca emitentă), acţionînd la cererea clientului său (ordonatorul), efectuează o plată în folosul unui terţ (beneficiarul) la prezentarea de către acesta documentelor ce confirmă livrarea mărfurilor sau prestarea serviciilor.

Read more ...

Rolul pieţei de capital în economie

Piaţa de capital - concept, importanţă

Piaţa de capital reprezintă un ansamblu de relaţii de natură financiară prin care se realizează transferul de capitaluri de la investitori către utilizatori, prin intermediul unor instrumente, mecanisme şi operatori specifici. Aceste relaţii dau naştere universului financiar, componentă a universului economic dar şi în acelaşi timp sistem autonom organizat pe propriile sale pieţe în care schimbă active financiare şi monedă.

Read more ...

Templu plutitor pentru placeri culinare

Dupa o saptamana de festivitati, în seara zilei de 8 septembrie 2001, locuitorii orasului Bremerhaven, Germania, si-au luat ramas-bun, în mijlocul unui spectaculos joc de artificii, de la noua nava pentru turisti, realizata în santierele navale Lloyd din localitate.

Vaporul a costat 650 de milioane de marci, putand gazdui, în conditiile cele mai luxoase, 1.936 de pasageri, plus echipajul de 968 de persoane.

Read more ...

Investiţiile externe de capital

In economia contemporană, mondializarea a devenit un fenomen evident. Faptul că un produs purtand aceeaşi marcă este fabricat in mai multe ţări sau că in consiliile de administraţie ale multora dintre cele mai mari firme pot fi găsiţi membri de naţionalităţi diferite nu mai constituie o excepţie. Nu mai este o excepţie nici faptul că o grevă la o intreprindere a lui General Motors din Brazilia declanşează o mişcare de solidarizare in uzinele aceleiaşi firme situate in puncte cardinale opuse, in Australia sau in Anglia.

Read more ...

Obiectivele şi principiile organizării contabilităţii în unităţile de comerţ

Unităţile de comerţ au un statut de intermediere între producători şi consumatorii de bunuri materiale. Comerţul ca parte componentă principală a sectorului terţiar al economiei se poate defini ca ansamblu de activităţi prin care se stabilesc legături permanente între producători şi consumatori. În esenţă, el se defineşte ca o activitate continuă de cumpărare a mărfurilor şi revînzare a lor, în scopul obţinerii de profit.

Read more ...

Geoeconomics

The legacy of the discipline of geopolitics

The disciplines of geoeconomic and geopolitics are closely intertwined. The discipline of geopolitics has a burden full past and can only progress through self-critique: that is through criticism of the discipline itself. For instance, it must be made clear what in geopolitics is objective and what is normative. So far this criticism has come mostly from outside, from its opponents, whether they represent critical geopolitics, political geography, or mainstream political science.

Read more ...

Information Processing

Accounts, Debits, and Credits

The previous chapter showed how transactions caused financial statement amounts to change. “Before” and “after” examples, etc. was used to develop the illustrations. Imagine if a real business tried to keep up with its affairs this way! Perhaps a giant chalk board could be set up in the accounting department.

As transactions occurred, they would be called in to the department and the chalk board would be updated. Chaos would quickly rule. Even if the business could manage to figure out what its financial statements were supposed to contain, it probably could not systematically describe the transactions that produced those results. Obviously, a system is needed.

Read more ...

Introduction to Marketing Mix

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the activities that comprise a firm’s marketing program. These activities are popularly referred to as the 4 Ps – product, price, place and promotion. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Understand the major product decisions in marketing planning
  • Know the pricing objectives and the factors that influence the pricing decisions
  • Appreciate the role of marketing channels and understand the important channel decisions to be taken
  • Comprehend the Promotion Mix of marketing and the different elements in the promotion mix
  • Learn how the 4 Ps combine to create effective marketing programs
Read more ...

Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the activities, viz., segmentation, targeting and positioning, that are collectively referred to as marketing strategy. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Segment the markets based on several segmentation variables
  • Target a segment by identifying the fit between segment profitability and organizational capability
  • Position your product/service so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the target customers’ minds
Read more ...

Buyer behaviour

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the process through which the ultimate buyer makes purchase decisions. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify what stimulates a consumer to consider buying
  • Describe the buyer’s decision making process and the several factors which influence this decision
  • Understand the response of the buyer to the marketing and other stimuli
Read more ...

Internal Marketing versus External Marketing

Abstract: International marketing orientation requires modern concepts of economic activities in accordance with the requirements and specific foreign markets (national, multinational, global) in order to meet their current and future needs with maximum efficiency. The need for knowledge of international marketing occurs when we have to realize, to sell and promote goods and services to consumers and users in other countries.

Read more ...

Marketing Environment

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the forces that define marketing’s external environment. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify, analyze and monitor external forces and assess their potential impacts on the firm’s goods and services
  • Understand how marketers formulate their strategy within the frame of reference provided by the forces in the external environment

In this lesson, we will discuss the following:

Marketing Process

Objectives of Marketing Process

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the activities that makeup the marketing process. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify the parts of the marketing process
  • Understand the relationships among the parts of the marketing process
  • Explain how the marketing process creates, captures and sustains value for the customer
Read more ...

Marketing Concepts

Objectives of marketing concepts

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the conceptual ideas that makeup the marketing function of a business. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • List out the concepts of marketing
  • Understand how these concepts are interconnected
  • Explain how marketing is changing in a connected world
Read more ...

Introduction to Marketing

In this lesson, we will introduce you to the business function of marketing. After you work out this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Define marketing and the utility (value) it creates for the customer
  • Trace the origin of marketing and explain how it has evolved
  • Describe the elements of a marketing strategy
  • Understand the scope of marketing
Read more ...

Definition and trends within Purchasing Management

The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with an introduction to Purchasing Management in order to fully appreciate the book. The chapter presents the book's definition of Purchasing Management as well as briefly presenting the potential benefits with working at a strategic level with purchasing activities for a corporation.

Furthermore trends and historical developments within the area of Purchasing Management will be presented.

Read more ...

Purchasing Organization

The structure of the purchasing department is especially important in external and internal networks. The organizational model must facilitate activities in different strategic levels as well as cope with changes in external environment. By adjusting formalization and centralization levels, the organization can be positioned to best support the organization.

However, no universal solution exists, as the right structure is highly company specific and dynamic over time. Therefore, this is one of the major challenges that Purchasing Management confronts within business networks.

Read more ...

Purchasing management and internal collaboration

Strategic purchasing is most often associated with external relations. However, purchasing integration and internal collaboration are the enablers of every corporate strategy. The aim of this chapter is to explain the connections between purchasing and the company's competitive priorities as well as emphasize the need for interdepartmental collaboration.

Read more ...

Sourcing Strategies of Purchasing Management

Sourcing Strategies of Purchasing Management

Sourcing is the activity of securing external components or services needed within the own internal organization. Companies employ different kinds of sourcing strategies and no one is declared to be the optimum solution. Outsourcing which is the foundation to choice of sourcing strategies also intends to align with a company's core competence focus.

Read more ...

International Financial Reporting Standards

A reporting entity (which we will call “entity” from here onwards) is either a company or a group of companies, which are all controlled by the same decision maker, i.e. normally the same board of directors. This occurs when the board of directors of a company controls directly or indirectly a number of other companies, by holding directly or indirectly the absolute or relative majority of the voting rights of other companies.

Read more ...

We begin our study of microeconomics by looking at a market with many buyers and sellers, i.e. a market where there is a large amount of competition. We will study such a market in more depth in Perfect Competition, as well as other market types, but starting here makes it easy to get a feel for how the subject works.

Demand

The Demand Curve

The demand curve shows what quantities of a good buyers are willing to buy at different prices. Note the expression “are willing.” It is not about how much they actually buy, but about how much they would want to buy if a certain price was offered. A demand curve is only valid if all other relevant factors are held constant (ceteris paribus: with other things the same). The most important other factors that can affect demand are:

The buyers’ income.

 

Prices and price changes on other goods. We will make a distinction between complementary goods and substitute goods. An example of complementary goods is right and left shoes. If the price of right shoes rises then the demand for right shoes will typically decrease. However, the demand for left shoes will also typically decrease. Consequently, the demand for left shoes partly depends on the price of another good: right shoes.

Substitute goods work in the opposite way. An example could be blue and green pens: If one cannot use blue, one can often use green instead. If the price of green pens rises, the demand for green pens typically decreases. However, if the price of blue pens is unchanged one can use these instead of the green ones, and then the demand for blue pens increases. Consequently, the demand for blue pens depends on the price of another good: green pens.

Note that for substitute goods, a rise in the price of the other good leads to an increase in the demand for the good we are analyzing, whereas for complementary goods it is the other way around; a rise in the price of the other good leads to a decrease in the demand for the good analyzed.

Preferences. What consumers demand is largely a matter of taste. If there is a change in taste, there is usually also a change in demand. Taste can change for many different, underlying, reasons. For example, changes in moral perception or in fashion.

If these factors are held constant, then the demand curve is valid and it usually slopes downwards. In other words, the lower the price is the higher is the demand, and vice versa. Demand is defined for a certain period. One can for example think of it as defined over a month, corresponding to a monthly salary. When drawing a demand curve in a diagram, the quantity demanded is on the X-axis and the price is on the Y-axis. This is slightly odd, since we often think of the quantity demanded as a function of the price, not the other way around. There are historical reasons for drawing it this way.

When do We Move along the Demand Curve, and When Does It Shift?

The relation between price and quantity that is described by the demand curve is valid only if it is the price of the good itself that changes. Look at Figure 2.1 and the demand curve D1. If, in the beginning, the price is p1, then the quantity demanded is Q1 (point A). If the price of the good falls to p2, then the quantity demanded changes to Q2 (point B). We, consequently, move along the demand curve when the price of the good changes.

The Demand Curve

Figure 2.1: The Demand Curve

If, instead, something else changes (e.g. income, the prices of other goods,consumer preferences, or anything that affects the demand on the good), then the demand curve shifts. Assume again that the price is p1 so that the quantity demanded is Q1 (point A). If the consumer’s income increases, she can buy more of the good than she could before. Consequently, the whole demand curve shifts from D1 to D2. If the price is still p1, the quantity demanded increases to Q3 (point C).

Supply

The Supply Curve

The producer counterpart to the demand curve is the supply curve. It shows how large quantities the producers are willing to sell at different prices, given that other factors that can affects supply are held constant. The supply curve is typically upward sloping or horizontal (but it could also be downward sloping).

The demand curve is also valid over a certain period. Later, we will distinguish between two time periods: short and long horizons. The most important factors, beside the price, that affect supply are:

  • Factor prices , i.e. wages, prices of machines and compensation to owners and lenders. In other words, changes in the cost of production.
  • Laws and regulations that apply to the production.
  • Prices of other goods the firm produces or could potentially produce. Perhaps the producer is producing blue and green pens. If the price of green pens rises, she is likely to shift over resources (workers and machines) to that production and there is less left with which to produce blue pens. Consequently, the supply of blue pens decreases, even though the price of blue pens is unchanged.

The Supply Curve

Figure 2.2: The Supply Curve

The supply curve behaves in a way that is similar to that of the demand curve. Look at Figure 2.2 and the supply curve S1. If the price isp1, then the producers are willing to sell the quantity Q1 (point A). If the price of the good falls to p2, we move along S1 to point B, where the quantity is Q2. If, instead, some other factor changes, e.g. if wages increase so that it becomes more expensive to produce the good, the whole supply curve shifts. For instance from S1 to S2. If the price is still p1, then the quantity supplied changes from Q1 to Q3 (point C).

Equilibrium

A market is in equilibrium when both of these conditions are fulfilled:

  • No agent wants to change her decision or strategy.
  • The decisions of all agents are compatible with each other, so that they can all be carried out simultaneously.

If we join the supply and demand curves in one diagram, we get an equilibrium point where the two curves intersect. At this point, the price the consumers are willing to pay is the same as the price the producers demand. In Figure 2.3, the equilibrium price (market-clearing price) is p* and the equilibrium quantity is Q*.

Equilibrium

Figure 2.3: Equilibrium

The equilibrium point has two important properties in that it is most often (but not always) stable and self-correcting. That it is stable means that, if the market is in equilibrium there is no tendency to move away from it. That it is selfcorrecting means that, if the market is not in equilibrium then there is a tendency to move towards it.

To see more clearly what this means, suppose the price is higher than in equilibrium, e.g. that it is p2. At that price, producers are willing to supply the quantity Q1 whereas the consumers are only willing to buy the quantity Q2. Therefore, there is an excess supply of the good. To get rid of the extra units the producers are prepared to lower the price. This will push the price downwards, closer to p*. At p*, there is no excess supply and the downward push on the price ends.

Then assume, instead, that the price is lower than p*, e.g. that it is p3. At this price, the consumers demand the quantity Q3 whereas the producers are only willing to supply the quantity Q4. Consequently, there will be a shortage of the good, and the consumers will be prepared to bid up the price to get more units.

This will tend to push the price upwards, closer to p* where, again, the push will end.

How to Find the Equilibrium Point Mathematically

Supply and demand can be written as mathematical functions, and in simple examples, they are often straight lines. They could, for instance, be:

 Supply and demand can be written as mathematical functions

Here, QD is the quantity demanded, QS is the quantity supplied, and p is the price. We now want to find the price, p*, that makes QD = QS. If the left-hand sides above are equal, the right-hand sides must also be so. Therefore, substitute p* for p and set the right-hand sides equal to each other:

85+ 30p* + 185+ 20p*

To get p* alone on the left-hand side, we add 20 p* on both sides and subtract 85 from both sides. Then we have that

50p* =100.

Dividing by 50 on both sides yields the result that

p* = 2

If we then want to know the equilibrium quantity, Q*, we substitute the result we got for p* into either the supply or the demand function above. (Note that they must yield the same quantity, since p*, by definition, is the price that makes QD = QS.)

 Supply and demand can be written as mathematical functions

Consequently, we have the equilibrium price, p* = 2, and the equilibrium quantity, Q* = 145.

Price and Quantity Regulations

Many markets are, for a number of reasons, regulated. The government could for instance decide about prices that the market is not allowed to go above or below, or about maximum quantities. Such regulations will benefit certain groups of people, but often have unintended negative side effects. These are often called secondary effects.

Minimum Prices

Minimum prices (also called price floors) are often used for wages (the price of labor) and for certain types of goods such as agricultural goods. The minimum price is usually chosen above the equilibrium price, as in the opposite case it would not have any effect. (The market participants would then choose p* instead.) Consumers and producers are consequently prevented from reaching the equilibrium price p*.

Look at Figure 2.4. The effect of the minimum price is that the consumers only demand the quantity Q2 whereas the producers supply the quantity Q1. Therefore, we get an excess supply of the good.

Note that consumers and producers are allowed to buy and sell at any price above the minimum price. A price higher then pmin will however result in an even larger excess supply, so typically the minimum price is chosen.

The situation described is not an equilibrium. To see that, note that point 2 in the definition of an equilibrium (see Section 2.3) is not satisfied: Given the price pmin producers want to sell the quantity Q1, but that is not possible since the consumers only want to buy the quantity Q2.

The Effect of a Minimum Price

Figure 2.4: The Effect of a Minimum Price

Maximum Prices

Maximum prices (also called price ceilings) are in several countries used for apartment rentals. For a maximum price to have any effect, it has to be below the equilibrium price, and the effects are the opposite to those of a minimum price. In Figure 2.5, pmax is the maximum price. It causes the consumers to demand

the quantity Q1 whereas the producers only want to supply Q2, and, consequently, there is a shortage. A typical consequence of a maximum price is that the search time to find an appropriate good is increased since the supply is too small to meet the demand.

The Effect of a Maximum Price

Figure 2.5: The Effect of a Maximum Price

Quantity Regulations

The effects of quantity regulations are similar to those of price regulations. Assume for instance that there is a restriction stating that one may only import the quantity Qmax of a certain good, say Asian textiles.

The Effect of a Quantity Regulation

Figure 2.6: The Effect of a Quantity Regulation

Producers would have been willing to supply the quantity Qmax at a price of pS, whereas the consumers would have been willing to buy that quantity at a price of pD. Since the quantity is not allowed to increase, there is excess demand at all prices other than pD. When there is excess demand, consumers are likely to bid up the price, so the price that this market is likely to arrive at is pD. Note that at the price pD, producers are willing to supply a much larger quantity, Q1, but that they are prevented from doing so by the regulation. The consumers

have to pay a price that is larger than the equilibrium price (pD instead of p*) and they get fewer units of the good, so they typically are made worse off by a quantity regulation.

Back to Top