Macroeconomics

The neo-classical synthesis is a synthesis of the classical model and the Keynesian model. In short, it states that the Keynesian model is correct in the short run while the classical analysis is correct in the long run. Let us consider a concrete example. According to the Keynesian model, an increase in G will increase Y and reduce unemployment.

The problem with the IS-LM model

The starting point of the Aggregate Demand-Aggregate Supply or AD-AS model is an assumption in the IS-LM model (and in the cross model) that limits its usefulness. This is the assumption that if firms where to choose the profit maximizing quantity of L (LOPT), they would produce more than the aggregate demand. In the IS-LM, YOPT > YD must hold as discussed in section Aggregate supply.

To realize why this is a problem in the IS-LM model, we gradually increase the aggregate demand byincreasing G. We can illustrate the process using figure 12.6 in Section The Labor Market

The Keynesian model

In this chapter we will look at the Keynesian cross model. This model is a simple version of what we call the ”complete Keynesian model” or simply the Keynesian model. The Keynesian model has as its origin the writings of John Maynard Keynes in the 1930s, particularly the book ”The general theory of Employment, Interest, and Money”. Although this book was written as a criticism of the classical model, the similarities between the Keynesian model and the classical model are definitely greater than the differences.

Lets point out the three most important differences directly:

In describing these trends, we have been asked several times what the nature of the market failure is. The answer seems fairly clear. There is no major market failure in the way economists normally use the term.

Multinationals, businesses that operate in the global economy, and those who have a role in creating and managing global supply chains are good at what they do and getting better all the time. They are knowledgeable about doing business in multiple national environments (an important capability).

In the postcrisis environment, issues of sustainability in the trajectory of the U.S. economy have come to the fore. Among the problems pointed to are a large current account deficit, the paucity of household savings, overleveraging in the financial and household sectors, and stagnation of middleclass incomes.

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